• Ford the first in the world to deliver dedicated hydrogen internal combustion powered shuttle buses for fleet use
  • New hydrogen internal combustion engine technology produces near-zero emissions
  • Five firms in four provinces were involved in the development, testing and production of the hydrogen internal combustion engine powered buses to be used by parliamentarians and Parliament Hill staff; seven more buses being prepared for use elsewhere in Canada
  • Ford is active in developing advanced gasoline hybrid-electric vehicles, hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicles, clean diesel, ethanol and hydrogen fuel cell-powered vehicles

OTTAWA, December 7, 2006 – Ford of Canada today became the first automaker to deliver hydrogen-fueled vehicles for fleet use in Canada. Three shuttle buses – featuring internal combustion engines that produce nearly zero emissions – will replace gasoline-powered buses used by the Senate of Canada in Ottawa.

In addition, Ford of Canada is preparing seven more hydrogen shuttle buses for use in other regions of Canada.

The first of the three Ottawa-bound hydrogen internal combustion engines arrived today. The leading technology buses are part of the Senate's environmental initiative and will be in every-day use. Industry Canada has invested $4.2 million toward the hydrogen internal combustion engine Shuttle Bus Demonstration Project, marking the first time ever that hydrogen, and not gasoline, will fuel internal combustion engine shuttle buses in Canada in actual driving conditions.

The government's contribution under Industry Canada's Hydrogen Early Adopters (h2EA) program is part of an $8.5-million project being undertaken by Ford of Canada -- in partnership with ATFCAN, the not-for-profit group promoting the use of clean energy and innovative technologies -- to demonstrate the operation of hydrogen-powered shuttle buses in real-world conditions.

Five firms in four provinces were involved in the development, testing and production of the hydrogen internal combustion engine bus.

  • High-pressure storage tanks were made by Calgary's Dynetek Industries
  • Cold-weather testing occurred in northern Manitoba
  • The 235-horsepower 6.8-litre engine was made at Ford's Windsor Engine Plant in Windsor, Ont.
  • The hydrogen fuel will be supplied by Air Liquide of Montreal
  • Bus bodies are made by Les Entreprises Michel Corbeil of St.-Lin-Laurentides, Quebec

"The hydrogen internal combustion engine project will help Ford of Canada demonstrate the commercial viability of using hydrogen as a safe and clean alternative to fossil fuels," said Bill Osborne, President and CEO of Ford of Canada.

"Hydrogen internal combustion engine technology represents an important step toward hydrogen becoming a viable motor fuel," he added.

Hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines have many advantages including high efficiency, all-weather capability, and near-zero emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases (CO 2). They can also be easily hybridized for further gains in fuel efficiency.

While the hydrogen internal combustion engine shuttle buses will provide valuable real-world experience, Ford is also conducting research into next generation hydrogen internal combustion engines, including features such as direct injection to enhance power and fuel economy.

"We have only scratched the surface in terms of what can be achieved with hydrogen internal combustion engine technology and are serious about maintaining our edge in this field," said Vance Zanardelli, chief engineer, Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines, Ford Motor Company.

Hydrogen Part of a Broader Effort

Research into hydrogen, including hydrogen internal combustion engines, is part of Ford's overall effort to address the challenges of climate change and energy independence. Ford is moving ahead with a range of technology solutions simultaneously, including vehicles such as the Ford Escape Hybrid, hydrogen fuel cells, hydrogen internal combustion engines, ethanol, clean diesel and refinements to gasoline fueled engines and advanced transmissions. Some of the technologies, such as Ford's lineup of hybrid vehicles, represent near term solutions. Others, such as hydrogen, must be viewed as long term options.

Additionally, the company also has a fleet of 30 hydrogen powered Focus fuel cell vehicles on the road – including five throughout British Columbia – as part of a worldwide, seven-city program to conduct real world testing of fuel cell technology. The 30-car fleet has accumulated nearly 580,000 km since its inception.

Ford of Canada also offers the gasoline-electric Escape Hybrid and expects to also offer hybrid versions of the Ford Fusion in 2008.

Prior to its arrival in Ottawa, the first Canadian hydrogen internal combustion engine shuttle bus benefited from more than 7,000 hours of engine development and testing to ensure optimum durability and performance. The engine development process replicated the same stringent durability standards applied to other Ford engines.

Specialized components in the engine include:

  • Valves and valve seats – special hardened materials are used to compensate for hydrogen's reduced lubricating properties compared to gasoline or natural gas
  • Spark plugs – Iridium tipped plugs allow for increased spark plug life
  • Ignition coils – high energy coil-on-plug coils, to manage unique ignition characteristics
  • Fuel injectors and fuel rail – Fuel injectors designed specifically for hydrogen and high volume fuel rails
  • Crank damper – tuned for hydrogen fuel to ensure smooth operation
  • Pistons, connecting rods and piston rings – high output designs to accommodate the higher combustion pressure of hydrogen combustion
  • Head gasket – accommodates increased combustion chamber pressures
  • Intake manifold – all-new to accommodate twin screw supercharger and water-to-air intercooler
  • Twin screw supercharger and water-to-air intercooler – added to improve power output and maximize efficiency
  • Engine oil – full-synthetic formulation developed in partnership with BP/Castrol optimized for hydrogen combustion properties

Technical Specifications


6.8L SOHC V-10

Manufacturing Location

Engine Manufacturing Development Operations,
Beech Daly Technical Center, Dearborn Heights, Mich.


90-degree V-10, cast iron block and aluminum heads with hardened seats

Intake Manifold



3.3L/rev, twin screw compressor

Exhaust Manifold

Cast stainless steel


Forged steel


5,000 rpm

Throttle Body

Twin 60 mm, electronic


Hydraulic lash adjusters with roller followers, 2 valves per cylinder

Valve Diameter

Intake: 42.5 mm Exhaust: 34.0 mm


High temperature forged aluminum alloy with low-friction coated skirts, ultra low oil consumption piston rings

Connecting Rods

Forged steel


Coil -on Plug coils, 9.5 AMP, Iridium tipped spark plugs

Bore x Stroke

3.55 x 4.16 in / 90.2 x 105.8 mm


415 cu in / 6,751 cc

Compression Ratio



235 @ 4000 rpm

Horsepower per Liter


Peak Boost

18-20 psi


310 lb-ft @ 3000 rpm

Recommended Fuel


Fuel Injection

Sequential multiport fuel injection

Oil Capacity

6 quarts, with filter

Recommended Oil

Castrol Synthetic, 5W-20