2011 Chevrolet Volt – Click above for high-res image gallery
When General Motors conceived the electric powertrain for the Chevrolet Volt, the 40-mile electric driving range was specified so that most drivers would rarely, if ever, have to use any liquid fuel. Components like the battery were then sized to match the performance and range specifications. However, the whole point of incorporating the range extending engine was so the Volt could keep going without the driver having to continuously monitor the battery level, even though GM once told us that the Volt would move without gas in the tank.
Regardless, leaving the same gasoline in a tank for months or even years creates a new set of problems. One reason is there's no such thing as pure gasoline. What's sold at the pump is a blend of numerous hydrocarbon compounds like octane, heptane and other additives that lubricate valves and fuel injectors, along with a range of assorted chemicals. Many of these compounds will eventually evaporate, reducing the performance of the fuel and could possibly lead to engine damage.
To address this, the Volt has a completely sealed and pressurized fuel tank. Pressurizing the tank helps minimize evaporation from the liquid fuel, forcing it to stay in liquid form. Before the fuel filler can be opened to gas up the Volt, the tank has to be depressurized, which takes a few seconds after pressing the release button. The engine management system also monitors the time between when the engine runs and will periodically prompt the driver to run past the 40-mile electric range before recharging. If the driver doesn't force the Volt to run on gas, the system will eventually start the engine to consume some of the aging fuel and circulate the fluids within the engine. Once this maintenance mode is complete, the engine shuts down until it's needed again or enough time has passed. GM hasn't revealed what the time intervals are, but with Volt production right around the corner, we'll find out soon enough.
[Source: Plug-in Cars]