Lexus CT 200h Offers Sophisticated Ride for Premium Compact Segment
2010 Geneva Motor Show - Lexus CT 200h 010
- Front and rear lateral performance damper system provide reduced vibrations
- All-new fully-independent, double wishbone rear suspension for superior ride comfort and handling
- Handling and steering feel for a spirited drive
Torrance, Calif. – Sept. 10, 2010 – The new CT 200h introduces Lexus' unique synthesis of unparalleled quality, sophistication and high technology to the premium compact segment for the first time. It combines revolutionary, full hybrid drive with the comfort, convenience, and carefully considered drive interaction that lies at the heart of the Lexus ownership experience.
The CT 200h features a bespoke suspension design which combines a proven MacPherson strut front system with a new, fully-independent, double wishbone rear suspension for comfort and handling stability.
Numerous elements of the front MacPherson strut suspension system have been exclusively developed for the CT 200h, including the coil spring, shock absorber, bump stop, upper support, upper and lower insulators, a lightweight steering knuckle, hub and bearing, and a new anti-sway bar for increased rigidity.
Unsprung weight has been minimized and shock absorber damping response enhanced through the use of aluminum steering knuckles and stabilizer links, and lightweight lower arms, hub bearings and shock absorbers.
The shock absorbers themselves feature low friction valves, seals and oil, further improving damping response. The adoption of lateral force control coil springs also reduces suspension friction, enhancing ride comfort. The steering gearbox mounts are connected directly to the front suspension member, ensuring a linear steering feel and enhancing the CT 200h's straight line stability.
The lightweight, large diameter, front anti-sway bar helps improve control, braking and maneuverability of the CT 200h. It features a ball joint link strut connection for excellent rigidity, and a fluorine resin coating between the bushings and the bar itself reduces friction and further enhances ride quality.
A new, fully-independent, double wishbone rear suspension incorporates a lightweight trailing arm, and positions the coil spring and shock absorber separately to minimize system intrusion into the loadspace floor. Suspension geometry including camber angle, toe angle and arm layout has been optimized to offer excellent handling stability and ride comfort.
Fabricated in stamped steel to combine light weight with high rigidity, the system features numerous exclusively developed components, including the coil spring, shock absorber, upper support, bump stop, hub and bearing, and anti-sway bar.
As with the front suspension, the shock absorbers incorporate low friction valves, seals and oil to improve damping response. Rebound springs have been adopted to optimize lean posture when cornering and urethane bump stops combine excellent rigidity and ride comfort. Low resistance rear axle hub bearings are used to help improve fuel economy, and a resin aerodynamic cover has been fitted to the front of the second lower arm to help direct underbody air flow, enhancing both handling and fuel economy.
The rear anti-sway bar bushings feature resin spacers and optimized rubber characteristics for greater support and stiffness and, as with the front suspension, a fluorine resin coating between the bushings and the bar itself reduces friction and further enhances ride quality.
The CT 200h features a unique, front and rear lateral performance damping system that is a first for Lexus. It's designed to absorb and minimize undesirable body vibrations, offer a more linear steering feel and further contribute to ride comfort.
In lieu of conventional fixed bracing, this system features a front performance damper connecting the left and right front suspension towers, and a rear damper connecting the left and right sides of the rear lower back panel.
With a construction similar to that of a typical monotube suspension damper, the front and rear performance damper assemblies differ according to the variations in body rigidity, noise and vibration of their surroundings, optimizing their ability to absorb body torsion, flexure and fine vibrations. Their installation has reduced vehicle floor vibrations across a wide frequency range, reduced body flex through a 15 percent drop in left and right front suspension tower displacement, and even lowered audio system white noise levels.
In combination, front and rear suspension and performance damping systems complement the new CT 200h's distinct driving modes, resulting in excellent ride comfort essential to everyday driving with the handling agility for a more dynamic driving experience. Lexus will display the CT 200h at the Paris Motor Show.
Lexus CT 200h Abridged
CHAPTER 0: ABRIDGED
The new CT 200h represents the synthesis of five key Lexus attributes which offer customers an unprecedented experience in premium compact motoring: Lexus Hybrid Drive and the extremely rigorous set of development standards known as the Lexus MUSTs; a unique driving character; the dynamic yet elegant styling inherent in the latest realization of Lexus' L-finesse design philosophy; Lexus' outstanding manufacturing quality and attention to detail; and the renowned customer service which lies at the heart of the Lexus ownership experience.
Lexus Hybrid Drive Powertrain
The CT 200h's Lexus Hybrid Drive features a unique energy management system. Through the application of brand-specific engineering solutions and software tuning, Lexus engineers have focused on enhancing both the environmental and driving performance of the full hybrid series/parallel system, as well as its low NVH levels.
With a total system output of 134 hp (100 kW), the CT 200h will accelerate seamlessly from 0-60 mph in 9.8 seconds. Conversely, the CT 200h boasts remarkably low fuel consumption – a combined EPA estimated fuel economy rating of 42 mpg.
Lexus Hybrid Drive generates significantly less NOx and zero particulate emissions compared to an equivalent diesel engined vehicle. Moreover, when operating in a switchable EV mode, it generates zero NOx and particulate emissions, driving for up to one mile at speeds of up to 28 mph.
Further enhancing the Lexus Hybrid Drive system's outstanding environmental credentials, the CT 200h incorporates numerous additional energy saving and environmentally-conscientious measures. These include LED lighting, an energy-efficient audio system amplifier and bamboo charcoal speakers, and the use of bio-sourced materials.
With a highly-focused driver's environment, the new Lexus CT 200h has been developed to combine superior handling and a dynamic driving experience with the ride comfort expected of any Lexus.
Key to the new premium compact full hybrid's sporting driving experience is its highly focused driver's cockpit. It features a low driver's seat with enhanced lateral and lumbar support, a sporting, wide grip steering wheel and a driver-focused instrument binnacle housing large, high-visibility, triple dials.
The CT 200h benefits from a highly modified existing platform incorporating numerous, exclusively developed body, chassis and powertrain control system engineering applications designed to offer customers a choice of two distinct driving moods – Dynamic, or Relaxing - in conjunction with the full hybrid's EV, ECO, NORMAL and SPORT, 'on-demand' drive modes.
Particular attention has been paid to promoting superior handling stability through the high structural rigidity of the bodyshell, a low center of gravity and the minimizing of the yaw inertia moment through the use of an aluminum hood, tailgate and bumper reinforcements.
Introduced for the first time on a Lexus in this segment, a unique lateral performance damper system has been designed to help absorb and minimize body vibrations, giving a linear steering feel and further enhanced ride comfort.
The Lexus CT 200h features a bespoke suspension design which combines a proven, MacPherson strut front system with a new, fully-independent double wishbone architecture to the rear, offering superior levels of ride comfort, handling and package efficiency.
The Lexus CT 200h introduces a powerful new evolution of Lexus' unique L finesse design philosophy to the heart of the premium compact segment.
Marrying refined elegance to sporting dynamism, the CT 200h has a highly distinctive, sharp-edged, resolute appearance, generating a unique aura which immediately sets it apart from segment rivals. With a powerful new Lexus frontal design, sweeping lines which mimic the natural flow of wind over and around the bodywork and a purposeful, wide track stance, the new full hybrid is the perfect expression of compact precision and power.
The CT 200h's efficient and elegant cabin combines superior ergonomics, advanced Human/Machine Interface technologies and spacious passenger accommodation with hand-crafted feel, premium quality materials to create an outstandingly refined driving environment.
Its efficient package enables front and rear seat passenger accommodation that is spacious and a 14.3 cu. ft. luggage capacity is comparable to any vehicle its size.
The new premium compact full hybrid is equipped with a comprehensive range of active, passive and pedestrian impact safety features in the entry luxury segment.
The CT 200h offers an optional pre-emptive, Pre-Collision Safety system incorporating Adaptive Cruise Control. Eight airbags including driver and front passenger knee airbags and Whiplash Injury Lessening (WIL) front seats are fitted as standard, and an upgraded Electronically Controlled Braking-Regeneration system (ECB-R) incorporates Anti-Lock brakes (ABS), Brake Assist (BA), Traction Control (TRAC) and Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) and a hybrid version of the brake override system, Smart Stop Technology.
Lexus CT 200h Introduction
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Lexus CT 200h – The Quiet Revolution
- Environmentally sensitive, with no compromise on refinement and driving pleasure
- Low emissions with almost no NOx and PM
The Lexus CT 200h marks the introduction of the first, and only, full hybrid vehicle to the core of the premium compact segment.
The CT 200h is the new gateway into Lexus. It introduces the company's unique synthesis of quality, sophistication and high technology to the premium compact segment for the first time, and will bring a younger group of customers to the brand.
Specifically designed and developed with the European market in mind, the all-new CT 200h's size, packaging, full hybrid technology and ultra-low emissions perfectly meet the requirements of a young, highly discerning, environmentally-conscientious customer base. Yet it offers no compromise on the refinement and driving pleasure which hallmark the progressive luxury inherent in every Lexus.
The new CT 200h represents the synthesis of five key Lexus attributes which offer customers an unprecedented experience in premium compact motoring: Lexus Hybrid Drive and the Lexus MUSTs; a unique driving character; the dynamic yet elegant styling inherent in the latest realization of Lexus' L-finesse design philosophy; Lexus' outstanding manufacturing quality and attention to detail; and the renowned customer service which lies at the heart of the Lexus ownership experience.
The CT 200h's Lexus Hybrid Drive system has been developed in accordance with an extremely rigorous set of development standards known as the Lexus MUSTs. These unique standards include more than 500 items that set strict guidelines for raising the dynamic and environmental performance of the new full hybrid.
The Lexus MUSTs also set NVH standards to achieve the levels of quietness and durability expected of the Lexus brand, and even apply to static factors such as the appearance, tactile quality, sound quality, and the performance and sensitivity of controls.
With a highly modified existing platform incorporating numerous, exclusively developed body, chassis and Lexus Hybrid Drive powertrain control system engineering applications, the CT 200h has been designed to offer drivers a segment-unique choice of Dynamic and Relaxing driving moods.
Combining the low center of gravity with a high-rigidity bodyshell, a unique lateral performance damper system and new double wishbone rear suspension, the new full hybrid driving experience is characterized by high speed stability, smooth, precise handling, rewarding agility and the ride comfort expected of any Lexus.
The dynamic driving experience is further reinforced with a highly focused driver's environment. While offering a uniquely efficient, elegant and spacious cabin design, the CT 200h also features a low ergonomical driving position.
Marrying refined elegance to sporting dynamism, the CT 200h is a new embodiment of the Lexus L-finesse design philosophy. With a powerful new Lexus frontal design, sweeping lines which mimic the natural flow of wind over and around the bodywork and a purposeful, wide track stance, the new full hybrid is the perfect expression of compact precision and power.
The CT 200h is built at Kokura plant where, in 2008, the plant started operations as the world's first factory dedicated to hybrid production. The plant maintains high standards of manufacturing quality through the high-level fusion of innovative production technology and the skills of Lexus master craftsmen.
Entering production at the end of 2010, the CT 200h will be available in the first quarter of 2011.
Lexus CT 200h Hybrid Drive
LEXUS HYBRID DRIVE POWERTRAIN
- Unique Lexus Energy Management System
- 1.8-liter 98 hp (73kW VVT-i) gas engine and 80 hp (60 kW) electric motor for total system power of 134 hp (100kW)
- Low emissions, remarkably low fuel consumption and almost no NOx or particulate emissions.
- EV, ECO and SPORT 'on-demand' drive modes for distinct, Dynamic or Relaxing driving moods
- Additional Energy Saving and Environmental Performance Measures
Marking the introduction of Lexus' second generation hybrid technology, the new CT 200h reinforces the company's clear leadership in the development of full hybrid drive systems.
With many manufacturers just starting to produce their first hybrid, Lexus hybrids come from a 10-year heritage of experience in full hybrid powertrains. With the CT 200h joining the GS 450h, HS 250h, LS 600h L and RX 450h, the company has an unrivalled breadth of Lexus full hybrid models available.
The CT 200h's Lexus Hybrid Drive features a unique energy management system which equips the new full hybrid with remarkably quiet operation, seamless acceleration and the performance customers expect from a luxury vehicle. Conversely, it delivers superior fuel efficiency and excellent NOx and particulate emissions.
Further enhancing the Lexus Hybrid Drive system's outstanding environmental credentials, the CT 200h design incorporates numerous additional energy saving and environmentally-conscientious measures such as LED lighting, a lightweight, energy-efficient audio system amplifier and bamboo charcoal speakers; and the use of bio-sourced materials.
Lexus Hybrid Drive Unique Energy Management System
Through the application of specific engineering solutions, and a unique energy management system incorporating bespoke software tuning, Lexus engineers have enhanced both the environmental and driving performance of the Lexus Hybrid Drive system, as well as its low NVH levels.
With a total system output of 134 hp (100kW), the CT 200h will deliver performance on par with rivals positioned at the very heart of the premium compact segment. Conversely, offering significant cost of ownership benefits, the new Lexus full hybrid targets class-leading emissions and also generates significantly less NOx and particulate emissions than an equivalent diesel engine vehicle.
Engine control and throttle responses have been tuned to deliver an engaging, dynamic driving experience, while the minimal Noise, Vibration and Harshness levels generated by the CT 200h's full hybrid powertrain reinforce the remarkable quietness inherent in the DNA of every Lexus model.
Lexus Hybrid Drive System Architecture
The new CT 200h is a full hybrid, offering all the benefits of series/parallel powertrain architecture. Capable of operating in gas and electric modes alone, as well as a combination of both, its Lexus Hybrid Drive system delivers the energy-saving benefits of a series hybrid combined with the performance benefits of a parallel hybrid.
Lexus Hybrid Drive equips the CT 200h with impressive, seamless acceleration and remarkably quiet operation, yet returns high fuel efficiency and excellent emissions.
The CT 200h's hybrid system features a 1.8-liter VVT-i gas engine, a powerful electric motor, a generator, a high performance Ni-MH battery, a power control unit, and a power split device which employs a planetary gear set to combine and re-allocate power from the engine, electric motor and generator according to operational requirements.
The electric motor, generator and power split device are all housed in one lightweight, highly compact transmission casing directly comparable in size to that of a conventional gearbox. Drive to the front wheels is provided by the full hybrid system's seamless, shift-by-wire, Electronically Controlled continuously Variable Transmission (ECVT).
The electric motor works in tandem with the gas engine to boost acceleration and power the driven wheels alone when the CT 200h is operating in EV mode.
During deceleration and under braking, the electric motor acts as high-output generator to effect regenerative braking, optimizing energy management in the Lexus Hybrid Drive system by recovering kinetic energy (normally wasted as heat under braking and deceleration) as electrical energy for storage in the high performance battery.
Moreover, when operating in a switchable EV mode, the new Lexus full hybrid generates zero NOx and particulate emissions, driving for up to one mile at speeds of up to 28 mph.
In combination, the Lexus Hybrid Drive system's petrol engine and electric motor generate a total system power output of 134 hp (100kW). Via an ECVT, the CT 200h will accelerate seamlessly from 0-60 mph in 9.8 seconds , and reach a maximum track speed of 112 mph. Conversely, the CT 200h boasts remarkably low fuel consumption -a combined EPA estimated fuel economy rating of 42 mpg.
1.8-liter Atkinson Cycle Engine
The lightweight, highly compact, four-cylinder, 16-valve, DOHC, 1798 cc Atkinson Cycle gas engine generates 98 hp (73kW) at 5,200 rpm.
Combined with a cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system, the adoption of the Atkinson Cycle offers significant gains in fuel efficiency and the reduction of emissions.
In conventional four-cycle gas engines, fuel enrichment is sometimes necessary to cool the exhaust gases, preventing degradation or destruction of the catalytic converters. In an Atkinson Cycle engine, compression and expansion are not symmetrical, and the valves close late, delaying compression. This creates a high expansion ratio for less compression, reducing intake and exhaust energy losses and converting combustion energy to engine power more effectively. As a result, the exhaust temperature is lower than that of conventional engines.
Via a stainless steel exhaust manifold, EGR reintroduces precisely metered exhaust gas -cooled from 1,292°F to 266°F into the intake system, further reducing engine operating temperatures, whilst also reducing engine pumping losses through a reduction in intake vacuum pressure.
Together, these technologies minimize situations when fuel enrichment is necessary to protect the catalytic converter from overheating damage, thereby improving fuel economy and lowering emissions.
To improve cold weather fuel economy and cabin comfort, the engine heat management system combines a heat recovery system with an electric water pump. To reduce mechanical losses, an electric system replaces the water pump drive belt. The adoption of an electric water pump not only controls the coolant flow rate with greater precision, but also allows for the use of both air-conditioning and heating without the engine running, all of which contributes to greater fuel efficiency.
In addition, via a valve built into the exhaust assembly, a smaller, lighter, more efficient, exhaust heat recovery system redirects exhaust gases to heat up the engine coolant at start up. As well as allowing for a more rapid delivery of effective cabin heating, this system improves hybrid system efficiency and fuel economy by significantly reducing engine warm up times, allowing it to be shut off earlier for longer electric motor-only operation, particularly in cold weather.
The 1.8-liter engine features numerous further enhancements to both improve performance and minimize fuel consumption and emissions. Variable Valve Timing with intelligence (VVT-i) helps boost response levels across the entire rev range by varying the air-fuel intake and exhaust valve timing to suit the conditions at any given time. As well as improving torque at low and medium engine speeds, the system also reduces emissions and enhances fuel efficiency.
The engine also features roller rocker arm valve-train control, a resin intake manifold with an optimized port configuration, a highly efficient, taper squish combustion chamber design and 12-hole, atomizing, long nozzle injectors. Thin, long reach spark plugs contribute to enhanced anti-knocking performance, and lower tension piston rings, reduced piston friction. A standing oil jet for piston cooling and a stainless steel pipe exhaust manifold further enhance engine efficiency. In combination, these advanced technologies further contribute to improved power output with reductions in both fuel consumption and emissions.
Ultra-low Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) characteristics are one of the key attributes of Lexus Hybrid Drive, and particular attention has been paid to minimizing engine noise and vibration. The rigidity of engine parts including the cylinder block and crank case has been optimized through in-depth Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis. A highly rigid, ribbed aluminum cylinder head cover combines light weight with reduced noise and vibration.
The engine itself is mounted on a four-point suspension system with mounting rubber characteristics optimized for the suppression of noise and vibration. And a two-step, dynamic damper is integrated within the engine mount to further minimize noise and vibration generated, as well as reducing engine start/stop shock.
Housing the electric motor, the electric generator, the power split device and the motor speed reduction device in one lightweight, highly compact transmission casing directly comparable in size to that of a conventional gearbox, the transaxle lies at the heart of the Lexus Hybrid Drive system.
The full hybrid drive system's seamless Electronically-Controlled Continuously Variable Transmission (ECVT) is controlled by Shift-by-Wire technology, using an electronic shift lever system. The shift lever itself is designed to always return to its 'home' position when released, and the shift position can be checked on the shift position indicator integrated within the driver's instrument panel.
Adjacent to the shift lever, a parking switch with integral indicator light is used to engage or release a parking lock mechanism within the transmission gearing. The parking lock is automatically deactivated when driving off, and automatically re-engages when the car is switched off.
Numerous measures have been adopted to reduce component noise and energy losses, further lowering hybrid system fuel consumption. A highly-advanced, internal gear machining process offers enhanced planetary ring gear precision, minimizing transmission noise. The lubrication system has been designed to reduce oil agitation losses and transaxle component friction has been significantly reduced through the adoption of tapered bearings instead of ball bearings.
80 hp (60 kW) Electric Motor
The high performance, permanent magnet, synchronous 80 hp (60 kW) electric motor works in tandem with the gas engine to boost acceleration and power the driven wheels alone when the CT 200h is operating in EV mode. During regenerative braking, the motor also acts as a high-output generator, recovering kinetic energy as electrical energy to charge the system battery.
Air cooled, the motor generates a maximum 152 lb.-ft. of torque from zero rpm, available torque being boosted through a reduction gear device in the transaxle. Maximum drive voltage amplification is 650V DC. However, under ordinary driving conditions, unless maximum output is required, the motor is driven at an unamplified voltage whenever possible to enhance fuel efficiency.
As with the electric motor, the generator is also of the AC synchronous type. The generator performs numerous functions within the Lexus Hybrid Drive system.
Because the system has no starter motor, the generator is used to start the petrol gas engine. Under normal driving conditions, engine output is divided according to system requirements to both drive the wheels and power the generator which, via the Power Control Unit (PCU), drives the electric motors and simultaneously charges the high-voltage battery. Moreover, in order to optimize engine speed control for maximum full hybrid system fuel efficiency, engine speed is also controlled by the generator.
When its operation is not required by the hybrid drive system, the generator stops the engine. However, if the CT 200h runs under electric motor power alone for sufficient distance to necessitate battery charging, the generator will start the engine, which itself provides the power for the generator to charge the battery.
High Output Battery
Using proven and reliable nickel-metal hydride technology, the Lexus Hybrid Drive system's 202V, 36 DIN hp (27 kW) battery allows the new CT 200h to operate in EV mode, driving under electric motor power alone. Located beneath the rear loadspace floor, the fan-cooled battery pack size has been minimized to reduced impact on cabin accommodation.
Power Control Unit
Similar in size to a 12 V battery, the Lexus Hybrid Drive system's Power Control Unit (PCU) consists of:
Lexus Hybrid Drive in Operation
- A voltage boost converter, which boosts electric motor, generator and battery voltage to increase hybrid system power output;
- a highly compact inverter for the motor/generator, which converts the DC power from the battery into 650V AC power for driving the electric motor and, occasionally, the generator;
- and a DC/DC converter, which reduces the high voltage of the 202V system battery pack to 14V, supplying power to the accessory systems and charging the auxiliary battery.
Over the course of any journey, the Lexus Hybrid Drive system operates in several different modes to maximize the CT 200h's overall efficiency: At rest, the engine stops automatically to conserve fuel. Under operating conditions of low engine efficiency such as start up and low to mid-range speeds, the vehicle runs on the electric motor alone, thus eradicating NOx and particulate emissions.
Under normal driving conditions, power allocation is constantly adjusted between engine and electric motor to combine optimum performance with maximum fuel efficiency. Via an Electronically Controlled Braking-Regeneration (ECB-R) system, the electric motor acts as high-output generator during deceleration and under braking to effect regenerative braking, optimizing energy management in the Lexus Hybrid Drive system by recovering kinetic energy (normally wasted as heat under braking and deceleration) as electrical energy for storage in the high performance battery.
At all speeds, the Lexus Hybrid Drive system monitors itself for optimum performance and fuel efficiency with minimum emissions, either running the electric motors in isolation, the engine in isolation, or a combination of both. Furthermore, battery power level is constantly managed via the engine driven generator to obviate any requirement to recharge the system from an external source.
Full described in the Driving Dynamics chapter, three 'on-demand' drive modes supplement the NORMAL drive mode, increasing the capabilities of the CT 200h's full hybrid powertrain. An EV mode allows for ultra-quiet running on electric motor power alone, resulting in zero fuel consumption and emissions; an ECO mode maximizes hybrid system efficiency and fuel economy; and a SPORT mode boosts system performance.
ENERGY SAVING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE
Air Conditioning Performance
Allowing for independent control of left and right hand sides of the cabin, the new CT 200h is equipped with a compact, lightweight air conditioning unit incorporating a powerful, electric, variable capacity compressor. The use of a hybrid battery-powered electric compressor reduces the load on the engine, improving fuel economy, whilst the surplus power of the unit allows it run below full capacity, with greater efficiency and with less noise.
The integrated-inverter electric compressor contains a centrifugal oil separator that removes oil from the refrigerant, reducing the amount of oil escaping from the compressor. This allows for a more efficient refrigerant cycle, optimizing the air conditioning's cooling performance.
The use of a lightweight, MF (Multi Flow)-IV sub cool condenser reduces refrigerant volume to further improve system efficiency. And the characteristics of the brushless blower motor have been refined to suppress noise whilst delivering a large volume of cool air.
Exhaust Heat Recirculation System
Because of the need to heat the cabin and de-fog the windscreen, hybrid vehicles can suffer a drop in fuel economy during winter months. To counter this, Lexus engineers have incorporated a third generation exhaust heat recirculation system.
The exhaust heat recirculation system helps the engine coolant reach normal operating temperature more rapidly by circulating it around a section of exhaust pipe. This not only improves fuel efficiency by reducing the time needed for the engine to warm up, allowing the Lexus Hybrid Drive system to shut of the engine sooner, but also enables the 495 watt Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) heater to provide warm cabin air more quickly in winter.
Lexus was the first automotive company to introduce LED headlamps for low beam use, with the LS 600h L in 2007. Consuming 45 percent less power than conventional, halogen units, they offer an improvement in fuel economy, perfectly complimenting the energy saving efficiency of Lexus Hybrid Drive.
With available LED headlamps, up to 46 LEDs are used in front, eight used for the door mirror-mounted turn indicators and 35 in the rear, the CT 200h is equipped with no less than 89 external LEDs –the largest number yet fitted to a Lexus model.
Lexus Audio System Amplifier
An available, energy efficient, Digital Signal Processing-integrated (DSP), eight-channel, full range class D amplifier makes its first appearance in the CT 200h. The new DSP unit consumes 50 percent less power than a conventional, analogue-powered amplifier and, with its weight reduced from 2.9 lbs. to 2.1 lbs., is 26 percent lighter.
Bio-sourced Materials and Bamboo Charcoal Speakers
Improving its environmental performance, several of the CT 200h's larger components including the loadspace deck sides, deck board and deck board trim have been fabricated from a bioplastic material containing 30 percent plant-based polyethylene terephthalate. The new full hybrid also benefits from an easy-to-dismantle construction, and recycle marks have been placed on the front, rear and tailgate trim to facilitate optimum recycling.
A Lexus and industry first, both sound systems are equipped with unique, bamboo charcoal-based resin diaphragm speakers. Constructed using a complex compound combining bamboo charcoal, bamboo fiber and resin, the diaphragms are injection-molded to a thickness of only 0.008-0.01 in., and are some 10-15 percent lighter than a conventional speaker diaphragm.
Lexus CT 200h Dynamic Package
CHAPTER 3: DYNAMIC PACKAGE
- Combines agility and stability with a comfortable and supple ride
- First Lexus with front and rear lateral performance damper system for minimization of body vibrations and improved dynamics.
- Sporty, highly focused, ergonomic driving position
- EV, ECO and NORMAL drive modes for Relaxing driving
- SPORT drive mode for Dynamic driving with enhanced acceleration and agility
- All-new, fully independent double wishbone rear suspension for superior ride comfort and handling, tuned MacPherson strut front suspension
- Precise Electric Power Steering for enhanced driver feedback and rewarding driving dynamics
- Extensively developed aerodynamics enhance stability, handling and ride comfort
The new CT 200h has been specifically developed to combine superior handling and a rewarding driving experience with the ride comfort expected of any Lexus.
The CT 200h benefits from a highly modified existing platform incorporating numerous, exclusively developed body, chassis and Lexus Hybrid Drive powertrain control system engineering applications designed to offer customers a choice of two distinct driving moods – Dynamic, or Relaxing - in conjunction with the full hybrid's EV, ECO, NORMAL and SPORT, 'on-demand' drive modes.
Focusing on every aspect of the CT 200h's bodyshell construction, Lexus engineers have developed both Dynamic and Relaxing driving moods through a low center of gravity, the optimization of the body rigidity, and the reduction of NVH levels.
Introduced for the first time on a Lexus, a unique lateral performance damper system has been designed to absorb and minimize body vibrations to offer a more linear steering feel and further enhanced ride comfort.
Setting a new benchmark in premium compact segment ride comfort and handling, the Lexus CT 200h features a bespoke suspension design which combines a MacPherson strut front system with a new, fully independent double wishbone rear suspension.
High Body Rigidity
Particular attention has been paid to promoting superior handling stability through the structural rigidity of the bodyshell. The CT 200h's torsional stiffness has been enhanced throughout by the optimization of weld points.
Underbody rigidity is maximized through the application of front and rear suspension member bracing, and high-rigidity front floor brace, HV battery carrier and rear lower support members.
The steering wheel mounts, steering gearbox mount, steering column assembly and suspension members have all been reinforced in the interests of maximum rigidity. The front suspension towers are connected by a straight front cowl reinforcement and a network of bracing connects the front suspension towers, front cowl and front pillars. The front engine mounts feature unique lateral stabilizers, and vibration in the exhaust system main muffler has been minimized.
Torsional rigidity has also been enhanced in the upper body through the use of a fully closed cross-section around the entire circumference of the back door opening, reinforcement on the backside of the rear side member and the application of an inner gusset and outer reinforcement to the rear wheel housings.
Lateral Performance Damper System
Because any high rigidity body has a tendency to transmit vibrations, the CT 200h also features front and rear lateral performance damping system designed to absorb and minimize undesirable body vibrations, offering a more linear steering feel while improving handling and ride comfort.
In lieu of conventional fixed bracing, this system features a front performance damper connecting the left and right front suspension towers, and a rear damper connecting the left and right sides of the rear structural frame.
With construction similar to that of a typical monotube suspension damper, the front and rear performance damper assemblies differ according to the variations in body rigidity, noise and vibration of their surroundings, optimizing their ability to absorb body torsion, flexure and fine vibrations.
Their installation has reduced vehicle floor vibrations across a wide frequency range, reduced body flex in left and right front suspension tower displacement, and even lowered audio system white noise levels.
Lightweight Body Design with Low Center of Gravity
Offering superior dynamic abilities, numerous measures have been adopted to ensure the CT 200h has a low center of gravity and moment of inertia. The bodyshell features a long, 102.4-inch wheelbase with short front and rear overhangs, in which occupants sit as close to the center as possible to reduce the moment of inertia.
In order to minimize the yaw inertia moment and improve the CT 200h's agility, bodywork components most distant from the vehicle's center of gravity have been designed to be lightweight.. As a result, the hood, tailgate and bumper reinforcements have been fabricated in aluminum.
Overall vehicle height, ride height and the driver's hip point have been set low.. And the hybrid battery has been located under the loadspace floor yet within the wheelbase, optimizing weight distribution and balance. Further lowering the center of gravity while also maximizing fuel efficiency by minimizing weight, the body itself incorporates not only aluminum, but also a high percentage of lightweight, high tensile steel.
Low, Highly Focused Driving Position
Key to the new premium compact full hybrid's sporty driving experience is its highly focused driver's environment. It features an optimized seating position which combines a low hip point height with enhanced lateral and lumbar support.
Support wires have been built into the seat side bolsters to improve lateral holding performance, and lumbar support may be power adjusted through a 1.2-inch range. The front edge of the base cushion has been shaped to provide a large contact area, reducing fatigue on long drives, and the cover incorporates a support pleat to better coordinate the motion of the driver's body with the vehicle.
The driver further benefits from a sporty, 14.6-inch diameter, wide-grip wheel with a lowered, 21 degree steering angle, accelerator and brake pedal angles optimized to suit the low hip point, and a driver-focused instrument panel housing three large, high-visibility dials.
Helping to maximize forward visibility, the hood has also been lowered in conjunction with the hip point. In order to maintain the appropriate spacing between hood and engine componentry for optimum frontal impact performance, this, in turn, required the design of a completely new air intake system unique to the CT 200h.
Drive Mode Select Switch
Supplementing the NORMAL drive mode of the new Lexus, three 'on-demand' drive modes may be selected via the Drive Mode Select switch, adapting the CT 200h to either a Dynamic or Relaxing driving mood, while further improving either performance and dynamic ability, or driving efficiency, fuel economy and emissions.
EV, ECO and NORMAL drive modes place the emphasis on a Relaxing driving mood, with particular attention paid to ride comfort, smooth acceleration and the minimization of NVH within the body, chassis and powertrain.
From start-up, at speeds of less than 28 mph and up to a mile, the CT 200h can automatically operate in EV mode, driving under electric motor power alone.
The driver may also select EV mode manually. This unique driving mode is not available to drivers of mild hybrid vehicles, requiring the full hybrid technology of Lexus Hybrid Drive.
With vehicle range dictated by battery charge, the EV drive mode allows for relaxing urban driving with minimal noise, and zero NOx and particulate emissions, for up to one mile. Because the gas engine is switched off throughout its operation, the EV drive mode contributes to a significant reduction in the new Lexus' overall fuel consumption.
In ECO mode, throttle response to aggressive accelerator pedal inputs is reduced and air-conditioning control optimized for improved fuel economy. Depending on driving conditions, the ECO mode can help customers adopt a relaxed driving style, and can achieve a perceptible reduction in fuel consumption.
Specifically tuned to deliver greater electric motor power, SPORT mode focuses on a Dynamic driving mood, maximizing the new CT 200h's performance and agility. Engine revs are held higher, and throttle and Electric Power Steering (EPS) settings are modified to give a faster response to driver inputs.
In addition, SPORT mode provides less intrusive operation of the Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) and Traction Control (TRAC) systems, allowing experienced drivers to fully utilize the new Lexus full hybrid's extended dynamic abilities.
The highly distinct character of both the CT 200h's Dynamic and Relaxing driving moods is further reinforced through changes to the driver's instruments synchronized to driving mode selection. Backlit in hybrid blue for the EV, ECO and normal drive modes, the instrument panel illumination, Drive Mode Select switch and a spotlight in the center cluster automatically alter to red when the SPORT mode is selected. Simultaneously, the hybrid power indicator function alters to that of tachometer.
The Lexus CT 200h features a bespoke suspension design which combines a MacPherson strut front system with a fully independent double wishbone rear suspension.
Unsprung weight has been minimized and shock absorber damping response enhanced through the use of aluminum steering knuckles and stabilizer links, and lightweight lower arms, hub bearings and shock absorbers.
The shock absorbers themselves feature low friction valves, seals and oil, further improving damping response. The adoption of lateral force control coil springs also reduces suspension friction, enhancing ride comfort. And the steering gearbox mounts are connected directly to the front suspension member, ensuring a linear steering feel and enhancing the CT 200h's straight line stability.
The lightweight, large diameter, front anti-sway bar improves the controllability, braking stability and evasive maneuverability of the CT 200h. It features a ball joint link strut connection for good sway rigidity, and a fluorine resin coating between the bushings and the bar itself reduces friction and further enhances ride quality.
A fully independent double wishbone rear suspension incorporates a lightweight trailing arm, and positions the coil spring and shock absorber separately to minimize system intrusion into the loadspace floor. Suspension geometry including camber angle, toe angle and arm layout has been optimized for handling stability and ride comfort.
As with the front suspension, the shock absorbers incorporate low friction valves, seals and oil to improve damping response. Rebound springs have been adopted to optimize lean posture when cornering, and urethane bump stops combine excellent sway rigidity with ride comfort. Low resistance rear axle hub bearings are used to help improve fuel economy, and a resin aerodynamic cover has been fitted to the front of the number two lower arm to help direct underbody air flow, enhancing both handling stability and fuel economy.
The rear anti-sway bar bushings feature resin spacers at the bushings and optimized rubber characteristics for greater support and stiffness and, as with the front suspension, a fluorine resin coating between the bushings and the bar itself reduces friction and further enhances ride quality.
These front and rear suspension systems compliment the new CT 200h's two distinct driving moods, combining excellent ride comfort essential to a Relaxing driving mood with the handling agility and stability appropriate to a Dynamic driving mood.
Electric Power Steering (EPS)
The CT200h is equipped with Electric Power Steering (EPS). Its energy saving and lightweight design characteristics make it ideally suited for use in conjunction with the Lexus Hybrid Drive powertrain. With a quick ratio of 14.6:1 and just 2.7 turns lock-to-lock, the CT 200h's speed-sensitive EPS is also the most direct steering in the Lexus model range.
Powered by the 202V hybrid battery, EPS improves fuel economy by consuming power only when steering force assistance is needed. It is highly durable and requires no hydraulic fluid.
The EPS' compact, high output motor and torque sensor are built into the steering column, optimizing steering assistance for more precise control of the vehicle. Steering precision is further improved through the mounting of the gearbox directly to the suspension subframe for greater installation rigidity, whilst the high rigidity of both the steering column and support bracket promotes enhanced driver feedback and a more linear steering feel.
When SPORT drive mode is selected, the EPS is modified to provide sportier driving dynamics. The system automatically governs the amount of steering assistance to offer more direct steering feedback and a more involving driving experience.
With the benefits of extensive Computer Aided Design and wind tunnel testing, particular attention has been paid to the aerodynamic efficiency of the CT 200h. A resultant, drag coefficient (Cd )of just 0.29 not only improves fuel efficiency, but also significantly enhances high speed stability, handling and ride comfort.
Every aspect of the CT 200h's upper bodywork has been painstakingly detailed for superb airflow management. The deep front bumper, sharply sculpted front air dam, optimized bumper corner angles and LFA-style door mirrors have been designed to smooth airflow over the front and down the sides of the vehicle, minimizing wheel arch turbulence.
The flow of air away from the rear of the CT 200h is carefully controlled through tapered cabin sides, a deep roof spoiler, aerodynamic fins at the corners of the rear windows and the sharp, near-vertical junction of rear wing and bumper.
Equal attention has been paid to underbody airflow management, the minimization of the vehicle's coefficient of lift essential to both fuel efficiency and handling stability.
Numerous aerodynamic underbody elements include a front lower absorber, engine under cover and wheel arch spats, a rear engine undercover, center floor under covers, rocker mouldings, tank side and rear floor under covers and rear wheel arch spats. In addition, diffuser fins have been added to the front under cover, and even the installation of the main exhaust muffler and the shape of the rear bumper cover have been optimized to create the smoothest possible underbody airflow.
The CT 200h benefits from a variety of measures designed to minimize wind and road noise, resulting in an outstandingly quiet cabin environment.
Sound absorbing and insulating materials have been comprehensively incorporated within the engine compartment, firewall, floor panel and cabin construction. Front wing side protectors prevent both road and engine noise entering the cabin, and wheel arch liners further inhibit the ingress of road noise.
Sealant and urethane foam has been used to fill bodyshell holes created during construction, and foam-based sound insulating materials have been positioned throughout the body -including all cabin pillars and the door sill and head sections- to minimize the transmission of noise through the bodyshell.
A damping channel has been adopted on the beltline of each door window, increasing the rigidity of the glass and strengthening the window's seal to reduce road noise penetration. A dynamic damper inside the tailgate panel reduces booming to further enhance cabin quietness.
A drag coefficient of only 0.29 minimizes wind noise from the CT 200h's body. Further wind noise reduction measures include the adoption of a sound insulating, acoustic windshield featuring an inner layer of film. The rear edge of the hood has been shaped to minimize turbulence generated by air flow over the wipers. The step between the windshield and both the roof and the side rain gutter mouldings has also been minimized to reduce wind noise. A seal positioned in the center pillar gap between the front and rear doors smoothes the flow of air down the sides of the body.
Lexus CT 200h Design
CHAPTER 4: DESIGN AND HIGH-TECH FEATURES
- Latest adaptation of the L-finesse design philosophy, attracting a new, younger generation of Lexus customers
- Dynamic, elegant design with superb, hand-crafted quality feel
- High aerodynamic efficiency for the minimization of fuel consumption and wind noise
- Lexus interior dashboard concept with upper Display Zone and lower Operation Zone
- Compact exterior dimensions with a long, 102.4-inch wheelbase for spacious passenger accommodation
- Award winning Remote Touch infotainment and vehicle set-up control
- Audio systems with world-first high-rigidity bamboo charcoal speakers for improved sound quality
The CT 200h's designers have created a unique combination of elegance and excitement. The new Lexus full hybrid marries refined charm and glamour to dynamic sportiness, creating a premium driver's car that will attract a new, younger generation of customers to the brand.
The front of the CT 200h is the new embodiment of L-finesse, expressing the perfect balance of precision and power.
The grille is pushed forward of the headlamps for greater visual integration with the bumper mid-section below. It incorporates a deeper, more sculpted interpretation of the L-finesse signature arrowhead motif. The upper and lower grilles combine to form a unique 'spindle' shape, bringing both bold simplicity and elegant dynamism to the very apex of the vehicle.
The grille is flanked by headlamp clusters clearly positioned on a higher plane than the grille itself. This is a unique characteristic of Lexus models, focusing the eye at the very apex of the vehicle to give the design a resolute look and strengthen the impression of speed and agility.
To enforce this resolute expression, the headlamps themselves focus on piercing, single halogen or optional twin LED low beam lamps. Newly developed, integral, arrowhead-shaped daytime running lamps feature advanced LED headlight technology, making the CT 200h instantly recognizable at first glance.
The deep front bumper and sharply sculpted front air dam flow into clean, muscular front wings which reinforce a purposeful, wide-tracked stance hinting at excellent agility and high speed stability.
The CT 200h's sweeping lines mimic the natural flow of wind over and around the bodywork, creating a dynamic yet elegant design that combines beauty with aerodynamic efficiency. The resultant drag coefficient of only 0.29 both maximizes fuel efficiency and minimizes wind noise to further enhance the exceptional quietness of the Lexus full hybrid's cabin.
In profile, the steeply raked windscreen, long flowing roofline and unique, Lexus slingshot window graphic combine to create an elegant and highly distinctive silhouette. New, compact and aerodynamic door mirrors with an integral, LED side turn signal lamp feature a two-tone finish for a slimmer appearance. The long roof and sweeping character lines of the door form a tapered cabin shape which naturally curves in at the rear to follow the movement of air as it flows into the vehicle's wake.
To the rear, a pronounced step in the tailgate section flows from the muscular rear wheel arch shoulders, emphasizing the wraparound rear window design. Anchored by sweeping tail lamps incorporating a Lexus-unique L-shaped motif first introduced in the LS, this step combines with a broad rear bumper design to reinforce the new full hybrid's wide, firmly planted stance.
The flow of air away from the rear of the CT 200h is carefully controlled through the finely honed trailing edge of the deep roof spoiler, aerodynamic fins at the corners of the rear windows and the sharp, near-vertical junction of rear wing and bumper. Careful aerodynamic detailing of the lower bumper and finned rear undercover smoothes airflow from beneath the car, further improving both vehicle stability and fuel consumption.
The CT 200h is equipped with 17 -inch alloy wheels. It is available in a choice of ten colors, of which two – Day Break Yellow Mica and Brown Spice Mica - are newly developed.
Interior Design, Ergonomics and Packaging
The visual impact of L-finesse is carried into the interior. Once again, a powerful simplicity of form harmonizes with the hand-crafted quality feel of even the smallest details to create a uniquely efficient, elegant and spacious cabin design.
The dashboard is divided into two distinct zones: an upper, Display Zone, with an eight-inch, LCD multi-display screen located at an ideal distance for at-a-glance viewing, and a lower, Operation Zone, which allows access to the uniquely designed shift lever and system controls such as the Remote Touch.
This clear division of zones creates the CT 200h's unique fusion of an airy, spacious cabin and a sporting cockpit which places the emphasis on a snug, highly focused driving environment. Functional driving components are consolidated in the driver's seat surroundings, combining outstanding ergonomics with advanced Human/Machine Interface technologies.
Fully described in the Dynamic Package chapter, the driver benefits from a low, highly focused driving position with a sporty, wide grip steering wheel and high-visibility instrument dials.
The extensive use of metallic finishes and dark, soft touch materials reinforces the premium quality of the environment. The shape and form of each interior component has been carefully designed to express the true form of the materials, such as the brushed finish of door handle bezel and the highly-tactile shift lever, seemingly carved from a single billet, and generously bound leather.
Within the CT 200h's long, 102.4-inch wheelbase, both front and rear seat are placed close to the vehicle's center to reduce the moment of inertia and enhance maneuverability. While the front seats are spaced at a distance of 28.0-inches, the rear seat spacing has been reduced to 24.4-inches and the hip point raised by one-inch, providing rear occupants a feeling of spaciousness and excellent visibility.
Front seat occupants enjoy excellent head clearance and shoulder room. The driver's seat has an eight-way power adjustment and incorporates a memory function, power lumbar support adjustment.
The flattening of the center of the rear seats, the thinning of the front seatbacks and the flat floor of the CT 200h's platform result in a cabin which offers rear seat passenger roominess with spacious leg and headroom.
With the compact hybrid battery located low beneath the loadspace floor and the adoption of a fully independent double wishbone configuration minimizing suspension component intrusion into the luggage compartment, the CT 200h offer a competitive 14.3 cu. ft. luggage capacity.
The CT 200h awards customers unprecedented customization opportunities through the widest diversity of color schemes yet offered in a Lexus model. The interior is available in a choice of Black or Gray leather trim and upholstery, and three NuLuxe finishes –Black, Ecru or Caramel. These finishes are complimented by a choice of Matte Wood, Silver Metallic or Bamboo dashboard accessory inserts installed by the dealer.
Integral to the available Lexus Navigation System, the available innovative Remote Touch multi-function control device is located directly in the operation zone directly behind the shift lever for maximum comfort and ease of operation.
Radically differing from remote devices offered by rival manufacturers, Remote Touch operates on the same fundamental principles as a computer mouse, but has been specifically adapted for use in the driving environment. Via a Remote Touch knob incorporating reaction force feedback for enhanced tactility, it offers simple, fast and intuitive operation, with users able to manipulate the cursor quickly and easily across the 8-inch, full color, LCD multi-display screen to access the new premium compact full hybrid's audio, navigation, climate, phone and vehicle set-up systems.
This state-of-the-art device incorporates numerous, highly sophisticated control systems to help ensure an engaging, yet entirely relaxed, operating technique. For instance, to facilitate the easier selection of icons displayed on the screen, the system automatically 'pulls' the cursor to an icon passed in close proximity. This highly tactile feature makes the system extremely fast and easy to use, helping to minimize driver distraction.
Lexus Navigation System
Accessed via the CT 200h's Remote Touch system, the available Lexus Navigation System benefits from a powerful, 40 GB HDD capacity, making it one of the fastest, and most accurate systems on the market. The system features voice recognition, with two additional languages including Spanish and French, and a menu that can be operated in the same languages and characters.
Lexus Audio Systems with Bamboo Charcoal Speakers
Conceived under the tenet of 'clearer quality through an emphasis on direct sound', the CT 200h builds on the legendary standards already established by Lexus in the field of in-car high fidelity with a choice of three powerful audio systems.
Fitted as standard, the entry level Lexus Audio System features a CD-player, steering wheel mounted audio control switches, and six-speakers. DAB-ready, the system also offers both USB and auxiliary port connectivity for the fully controlled use of select portable music players such as iPods, and Bluetooth mobile phone connectivity with an audio/video streaming function.
Incorporating all of the above features, a 10-speaker Lexus Premium Audio System is also available, integrated with a six-disc, in-dash CD-changer. The system features a high performance, Digital Signal Processing-integrated (DSP) low power consumption, eight-channel, full range class D amplifier, making its first appearance in a Lexus model. The new DSP unit consumes 50 percent less power a conventional, analogue-powered amplifier, and is 26 percent lighter.
Sound distortion has been reduced, and the ten speakers are controlled by uniquely developed sound image control technology, which improves sound localization for each occupant, providing a natural soundscape irrespective of passenger location. New loudness characteristics have also been incorporated within the system; volume tuning developed exclusively for the new full hybrid's notably quiet cabin improving sound quality at low volumes.
A Lexus first, both audio systems are equipped with unique, bamboo charcoal-based resin diaphragm speakers. Constructed using a complex compound combining bamboo charcoal, bamboo fiber and resin, the diaphragms are injection-moulded to a thickness of only 0.008-0.01-inch. They are some 10 to 15 percent lighter than a conventional speaker diaphragm, yet 20 percent stiffer and with a 10 percent greater sonic speed. As a result, the sound is clearer and more natural than that of a conventional resin diaphragm.
Rear View Monitor
A rear view monitor is also available, automatically projecting a full color, camera fed image of the view behind the vehicle onto the CT 200h's navigation system display or the 3.3-inch display on the inner mirror whenever reverse gear is engaged. Integral guide monitor lines further assist with precise vehicle placement for curb clearance and parallel parking.
Lexus CT 200h Safety
CHAPER 5: SAFETY
- Available Pre-Collision Safety System with Adaptive Cruise Control
- Electronically Controlled Braking-Regeneration system (ECB-R) incorporating Brake Assist (BA), Traction Control (TRAC) and Vehicle Stability Control (VSC)
- Standard eight airbags, including side-curtain and driver and front passenger knee airbags
- Whiplash Injury Lessening (WIL) front seats with active front headrests for reduced whiplash injuries
As with every Lexus, the CT 200h's highly advanced safety features are structured around an 'Integrated Safety Management Concept', which is designed to provide exceptional safety performance in most driving scenarios.
Within a highly rigid, impact-absorbing body shell, the new premium compact full hybrid is equipped with a range of active and passive safety.
The CT 200h may be equipped with a pre-emptive, Pre-Collision System incorporating Adaptive Cruise Control. Eight airbags and Whiplash Injury Lessening (WIL) front seats are fitted as standard, and an upgraded Electronically Controlled Braking-Regeneration system (ECB-R) incorporates Anti-Lock brakes (ABS), Brake Assist (BA), Traction Control (TRAC) and Vehicle Stability Control (VSC).
Pre-Collision Safety (PCS)
The new CT 200h may be equipped with a sophisticated Pre-Collision System (PCS) that can help reduce collision damage and injury. The PCS system features a millimeter-wave radar sensor, operating within a 20 degree scanning radius to detect obstacles in front of the car, even during cornering. Via numerous sensors, a pre-collision system computer monitors vehicle speed, steering angle and yaw rate inputs to help determine in advance whether an impending frontal collision is unavoidable.
If there is a high possibility of a collision, PCS will alert the driver via both a buzzer and a warning on the multi-information display, activate the Pre-Collision Seatbelt pretensioners to retract the front belts and, when the driver begins to brake, provide Pre-Collision Brake Assist to supplement the braking effort. If the driver does not brake and a collision is inevitable, Pre-Collision Brake will automatically apply the brakes to reduce impact speed.
Dynamic Radar Cruise Control (DRCC)
Complementary to the PCS system, the new Lexus premium compact full hybrid also offers a Dynamic Radar Cruise Control (DRCC) system. The system offers two modes: constant speed control, and vehicle-to-vehicle distance control. The constant speed control functions in the manner of a conventional cruise control system.
Capable of differentiating between vehicles traveling directly ahead of the Lexus and those in an adjacent lane, the vehicle-to-vehicle distance control system employs the PCS millimeter-wave radar sensor, allied to constant speed, decelerator, follow-up and accelerator controls, is designed to automatically slow the CT 200h, match the speed of the vehicle in front and, once the road is clear ahead, accelerate to the previously selected cruising speed. The driver can select long, middle or short vehicle-to-vehicle distances. The system control settings are indicated on the CT 200h's multi-function display.
Electronically Controlled Braking-Regeneration System (ECB-R)
The CT 200h is equipped with an Electronically Controlled Braking-Regeneration system (ECB-R) which coordinates the control of both hydraulic and regenerative braking. This cooperative control system achieves excellent fuel economy by proactively using braking force from the hybrid drive system's electric motor to recover as much electrical energy as possible.
Large, 10-inch ventilated disc brakes featuring lightweight, aluminum calipers with a resin piston and high friction brake pads are fitted in front. The retract mechanism of the caliper piston seal has been optimized to reduce brake drag, enhancing fuel economy. 11Eleven-inch solid discs to the rear feature aluminum calipers and a V-spring to reduce brake drag and further improve fuel economy.
The brake pedal ratio and efficiency have been optimized, reducing initial pedal effort and achieving a pedal stroke that enhances the driver's ability to modulate braking force. The brake pedal itself is hollow saving weight.
Additional Active Safety Features
ECB-R incorporates the full range of active safety systems, including a latest generation Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) with Brake Assist (BA), Traction Control (TRAC) and Vehicle Stability Control (VSC).
BA monitors brake pedal depression speed to help determine whether an emergency-braking maneuver is intended. If the driver applies insufficient braking force yet the system interprets the driver's action as emergency braking, it will automatically increase the hydraulic pressure in the system to optimize braking efficiency.
TRAC monitors and controls the amount of power that is applied to the road through the car's wheels. If the system detects that one or more wheels is about to lose traction it instantly determines the best way to restore traction to that wheel, either by decreasing the power being sent to the wheel that is about to spin or, in more extreme cases, momentarily braking the wheel until it regains traction.
VSC is designed to help prevent loss of car control when entering a corner too fast or in slippery conditions which might lead to wheelspin. Via sensors monitoring car body rotation, wheel speed and brake pressure, the system assesses vehicle stability and a wheelslip situation. The system helps restore stability by applying smoothly modulated braking to the appropriate wheel individually.
The CT 200h has been engineered with the express aim of pursuing excellent safety performance in terms of full-frontal, offset, side and rear collisions.
The high strength body has been designed to distribute collision loads through multiple energy-absorbing paths, helping to limit cabin deformation. In the case of frontal impact, high tensile sheet steel has been adopted for the front side members, and the inclusion of an under member allows for the distribution of impact load from the radiator support. The strength of the door belt line reinforcement has been optimized to allow the structure to distribute collision load effectively between the A pillars, door belt line and rockers.
The dash panel incorporates a cross member which helps distribute impact load from the front side member to the floor member and upper body. And the inclusion of floor tunnel side member not only enhances floor tunnel strength, but also further distributes impact load from the front side member.
Side collision performance is enhanced through the use of high tensile steel reinforcement to the outer B pillar and hinge, inner and outer rocker, front door belt line and roof center. Bulkheads placed at the ends of several floor cross members effectively transmit side impact load to the cross members, and a side impact support box has been positioned in the front floor tunnel between the front seats to further absorb side impact load.
The rear body structure has been designed to comply with revised U.S. regulations (FMVSS 301/305) regarding 50 mph high speed collisions, with high strength, rear floor side members incorporated to suppress body deformation under rear impact load.
Within the cabin construction, occupant protection is further improved through the introduction of energy absorbing padding under the dash panel to help reduce leg injuries, and within the front and rear door trims around the occupants' waist and abdomens. Within the roof structure, energy absorbing materials have been built into the roof trim and each pillar, helping to reduce head injuries.
Pedestrian Impact Safety
The front of new CT 200h incorporates measures to help reduce pedestrian injury in the event of an impacts. Within a bumper structure designed to help minimize leg injury in some situations, impact absorbing materials have been installed within the front bumper and under the radiator support to help minimize the risk of a pedestrian's legs from sliding under the vehicle.
The hood structure incorporates an impact absorbing cavity to maximize the impact distance.. In addition, the cowl and cowl louvers feature an easily crushable, energy-absorbing open cross-section structure to absorb impacts from above, which may help to reduce head injury in certain situations.
Airbags and Seatbelts
The new CT 200h is fitted with eight Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) airbags, as standard: driver and front seat passenger front, knee and side airbags, and side curtain airbags.
All front and rear seats feature three-point, Emergency Locking Retractor (ELR) seatbelts. The driver, front passenger and rear outer seatbelts are also equipped with a pre-tensioner and force limiter function. The ELR is designed to lock up the seatbelt when excessive load is applied over a preset value. During a collision, the force limiter fractionally reduces seatbelt tension to lower occupant chest impact forces.
Whiplash Injury Lessening (WIL) Seats
The new Lexus CT 200h also features the second-generation Whiplash Injury Lessening (WIL) seat concept. The revised system features a new seat back structure and headrest design. The new headrest is designed to sit as close as possible to the passenger's head during normal use, while, in the event of a rear impact, the lower seat back pushes backwards, helping to close the gap between occupant head and headrest, and reducing the risk of whiplash-type injury through excessive head movement.
Lexus CT 200h Manufacturing
Chapter 6: MANUFACTURING, QUALITY AND SATISFACTION
- High-precision assembly line combining innovative production technology with the skills of master craftsmen at every stage.
- High quality assured through unique, Lexus MUST development standards for design, engineering and manufacture
- Legendary customer service
Combining the strengths of the renowned Toyota Production System (TPS) with the company's own peerless build quality standards, Lexus continues to set the world benchmark for overall quality in the premium automotive segment.
The Kyushu Plant – Innovative Production Technology and the Lexus Master Craftsmen
The CT 200h is built alongside the RX 450h and HS 250h at Toyota Motor Kyushu (TMK) where, in 2008, the Kokura plant started operations as the world's first factory dedicated to hybrid production. The plant maintains high standards of manufacturing quality through the high-level fusion of innovative production technology and the skills of Lexus master craftsmen.
Throughout all processes on the CT 200h production line, the Kokura plant is committed to the reduction of inconsistencies. One of the most effective approaches is data-driven manufacturing. In each process, from stamping, painting and assembly through to inspection, highly precise data is measured, collated and managed. Measurements for each vehicle are recorded in its production history. By monitoring measurement data in real time, inconsistencies and abnormalities can be detected instantly. Cross-checked against design parameters and stored on a database, this data is then used to hone assembly operations to even higher levels of precision.
However, though cutting-edge robots, digital devices and testing equipment now perform many of the tasks and inspections carried out during CT 200h assembly; there are still many areas of manufacture in which human skills far exceed those of even the most sophisticated automated systems. And the Kokura plant production process integrates Lexus' legendary manufacturing quality with an entirely humanized focus on subliminal quality; those aspects of a car which cannot be mechanically measured or quantified, yet contribute at a fundamental level to perceptions of the very highest overall quality.
For instance, though undetectable by machines, subtle imperfections such as virtually invisible scratches, dull patches in surface coating and gaps or misalignment in body panels are detected by highly skilled Master Craftsman and finished meticulously, one vehicle at a time.
Dust-free stamping dies are essential to the creation of a flawless bodyshell. A dust particle need only measure some 20 microns –the size of a grain of pollen from a cedar tree- to leave scratches on body panels, and stringent controls are essential to keep dust away from the entire stamping line.
Twice a week, the dies are taken to a maintenance area within the same plant to be sanded and washed. To ensure that the fine dust generated by this process does not re-enter that stamping area, the maintenance area is surrounded by a dust-catching water curtain net nicknamed 'Niagara'. Niagara is a ten-foot high green net with water flowing constantly down its surface, which catches over 90 percent of airborne particles, resulting in a dramatic improvement in the quality of the stamped panels.
A high degree of body rigidity underpins the CT 200h's driving performance, ride comfort and quietness. This rigidity has been achieved through key developments in high-precision, advanced welding technologies.
Vehicle body shells are assembled by spot welding performed by robots moving in and out of the vehicle body, which is held in place by a number of jigs. The rigidity and precision of the body is determined by the number of spots the robots are able to reach, and weld. Interspersing slim robots between the standard units has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of weld points.
Careful analysis ensures that the most appropriate number of weld points is used for each area. This not only improves body rigidity, but also dramatically reduces inconsistencies in body shell.
The unparalleled surface quality of the Lexus multi-coat painting process is underpinned by meticulous cleanliness in the paint application, particularly in the top-coating booths during the latter half of the process. The eradication of airborne particles is fundamental to the successful application of paint.
TMK has introduced a system such as those used in semi-conductor factories, employing a number of small, one way air outlets to pressurize the area prior to the top coat booth, thus forcing air away from the booth.
This approach has resulted in a significant reduction in the infiltration of airborne particles, achieving a degree of air quality approximately halfway between Class 1,000 and Class 10,000 under the FED (U.S. Federal) standards for cleanrooms. The number 5,000 refers to the number of 0.5 micron dust particles in one cubic foot of air, here corresponding to the cleanliness of air in the earth's stratosphere.
To ensure the CT 200h's outstanding surface quality is maintained throughout the finishing process, the production line combines the latest generation of robotized paint coating technology with the master craftsmanship of hand polishing techniques. The vertical surfaces of the new full hybrid are water polished with a plane sander after the intermediate coat application, and checked by eye as well as digitally to ensure both a physically and visually unparalleled quality of finish.
The world's only dedicated hybrid manufacturing facility, TMK's Kokura plant has been designed and constructed to provide an exemplary environment for the manufacture of hybrid components.
Because the motor -a main component of Lexus Hybrid Drive- is an electrical component, minimizing the contamination of work processes by fine airborne particles is of paramount importance. Abetted by the building's low ceiling design which reduces overall air volumes within the plant, this is achieved by the introduction of atmospheric pressure control.
Introducing positive air pressure within the plant ensures that air is constantly being forced outside the building, inhibiting the ingress of airborne particles. Besides atmospheric pressure, temperature and humidity are also rigorously monitored to maximize the stability of the manufacturing environment throughout the year.
Moreover, the loading dock is completely enclosed and a conveyor transports parts to the receiving door via an airlock, preventing the ingress of either wheel- or airborne matter. The personnel entrance is also subject to strict entry and exit controls. Workers must wear pocketless, anti-static clothing and wash their shoes. They are also prohibited from bringing in metal items.
The CT 200h assembly process involves the fitting of several thousand parts to the bodyshell along the assembly line. Lexus has introduced the Set Part System (SPS), in which all parts required for the assembly of a particular vehicle travel along the line with that vehicle in a gondola. Time spent in collecting parts is minimized, and the system can respond flexibly to complex part combinations, enabling it to cope with even complex customer orders.
Numerous 'Clean and Silent' initiatives are being undertaken in all TMK plants. The adoption of a 'friction-driven conveyance' system in the assembly process is a key contributor to a quiet factory environment. The conventional chain-driven conveyor has been replaced by a system employing urethane rollers to move bodyshells along the assembly line.
The resultant, dramatic reduction in noise within the plant improves technicians' concentration, leading to improved work efficiency and precision. In addition, most air tools have been replaced with electric nut driver which automatically adjust to a pre-set torque, ensuring consistent precision and enhanced vehicle body rigidity.
During the meticulous inspection process, Lexus once again combines cutting-edge digital measuring technology with the sensory skills of takumi to help ensure the highest levels of vehicle quality and appearance.
Automated, in-line measurements and quality gate checks are conducted by technicians throughout the body welding and assembly processes. Checks carried out during earlier processes are followed by a final fitting inspection in which panel gaps and panel alignment are checked by hand and eye. The inspectors carrying out this work undergo daily training and testing to maintain their sensory skills.
One hundred percent of completed vehicles are inspected in a bespoke 'Quiet Dome' area, checked for leaks in a shower test booth simulating weather conditions worse than a severe typhoon, and driven on a dedicated proving course which simulates various road conditions and driving situations.
The full hybrid CT 200h has been developed in accordance with an extremely rigorous set of development standards known as the Lexus MUSTs. These unique standards include more than 500 items that set strict guidelines for design, engineering and every stage of the manufacturing process.
The Lexus MUSTs also set NVH standards to achieve the levels of quietness and durability expected of Lexus Hybrid Drive technology and the Lexus brand, and even apply to static factors such as the appearance, tactile quality, sound quality, and the performance and sensitivity of controls.
Quality, legendary customer service and the finest dealer network in the industry have always represented the bedrock of the Lexus brand. With the launch of the new CT 200h, premium compact customers can now experience the full benefit of these remarkable standards of customer care.