Researchers at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) suggest that autonomous vehicles should be required to pass a licensing test. In a new white paper, UMTRI's Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle argue that sensing hardware and software performance will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, and depending on road conditions. They say that current technology hasn't been tested thoroughly in various conditions. The also argue, interestingly, that vehicles will face ethical dilemmas when making certain decisions. A graduated licensing system could permit cars to operate autonomously in certain conditions that they are equipped for, and could be licensed for other driving conditions as hardware and software are updated. Read more at Green Car Congress, or in the abstract from the UMTRI.

Younger drivers in the UK have a much more favorable view of electric vehicles than older generations. Of the 800 teenagers aged 14 to 17 who were surveyed, 88 percent said more people should be driving EVs. 81 percent of 14-year-olds said they want their first car to be electric. The folks at Green Car Reports, question whether this eagerness for EVs would translate to US teens, if those surveyed might change their minds with age, and how many of them will follow through with their intentions to buy an EV. Read more from Express, and at Green Car Reports.

A German environmental organization claims the Opel Zafira 1.6 CDTi emits up to 17 times more NOx than it should. In dynamometer tests, Deutsche Umwelthilfe (DUH) found that emissions increased with four-wheel testing compared to front-wheel testing. Opel, however, denies that the car is programmed to operate differently during testing. Opel repeated the tests in the presence of TÜV Hessen inspection, and the same model performed in compliance with emissions standards. Read more at Green Car Congress, and see the (Google-translated) press release from DUH below.
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High nitrogen oxide emissions at an Opel Zafira Diesel tested

German Environmental Aid presents results of exhaust gas measurements on a Euro 6 diesel cars - compliance with the nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions is the EU Abgasprüfzyklus the tested car dependent that do not turn the rear wheels - DUH calls for the Federal Motor Vehicle Office for a review the vehicle type on - more vehicle tests at German and foreign diesel cars are commissioned

The exhaust inspection of the Berner Fachhochschule in Switzerland examined on behalf of the German Environmental Aid Association (DUH), the nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions of an Opel Zafira 1.6 CDTi (Front Wheel Drive, Mileage 6,000 km or Euro 6b). This 6 limit up to 17-fold higher NOx emissions were measured in certain driving situations, as permitted by the euro. The tested Opel Zafira came in the official test cycle (NEDC) with rotating rear wheels in three tests two to four times more NOx than allowed. In three further tests under 'normal' test conditions and thus non-rotatable rear wheels, while the NOx values were both below the legal limit of 80 mg / km.

The exhaust inspection of the Berner Fachhochschule operates mainly for Swiss authorities. She comes in her report to the conclusion: "The measurement results show that the vehicle behaves differently when the dynamometer in the 4- or 2-wheel mode is operated." In addition, another feature has been observed in non-rotating rear wheels: With a continuous increase in the speed at 150 km / h increased NOx emissions abruptly and exceeded the measuring scale of the analyzer. In test report states: "The behavior could be explained by a shutdown of the AdBlue dosing. A similar behavior was not detectable during the 4-Radantriebmodusbetriebs. "

The opinion of the Bernese exhaust testing comes to these conclusions:

"The measurements carried out show the following trend: The NOx emissions in the NEDC depend on the test mode 2WD / 4WD. In 2-Radantriebmodus the vehicle met the NOx regulations. At low speeds, the NOx emissions are not always identical, and probably depend on the type or the memory effect of the SCR system. The behavior of the SCR system seems to be dependent on the test mode, since the NOx courses are different in the two test rig modes. "

On 09.21.2015 - immediately after starting their campaign "Diesel exhaust kill" - has asked detailed questions about the possible shutdown and non-compliance with licensing requirements in a letter of Adam Opel AG, the DUH. On 09/25/2015, the company responded: "The technology developed by GM Software has no features that determine whether a vehicle is just in emission test cycles."

On 10.19.2015, after the first preliminary test results from Switzerland were present asked the DUH again after detail. Subsequently, the company said on 10.21.2015 to have traced and logged own tests with an appropriate vehicle according to legal regulations, "both on a two- and a four-roller dynamometer. The respective emission figure behavior differs not from one another "The Adam Opel AG reiterated:".. Developed by GM software does not contain any features that determine whether the vehicle is subjected to an emission test "

"It goes with the emissions regulations not about to make the laboratory air clean, but the air that people breath. I see no technical reason why the NOx emissions increase dramatically, when rotate the rear wheels. I have no common technically plausible explanation for the emission behavior of the Opel vehicle, "says international traffic advisor Axel Friedrich.

Jürgen Resch, Federal Managing Director of DUH: "We have decided to start our tests with the exhaust Opel Zafira, because we have received about this vehicle particularly detailed evidence of inconsistencies in the exhaust gas purification. We have today submitted the report to the authorities responsible for type approval Federal Motor Vehicle Office and encouraged this to check the model. "Resch announced further emission tests of current Euro 6 diesel vehicles of German and foreign manufacturers.

"The DUH had already lodged an application for an order of binding measures in the Federal Motor Vehicle Office in matters VW. Had the KBA placed no mandatory recall action was brought. Meanwhile, we have sought to obtain a copy of the opposite Volkswagen outspoken arrangement. The answer to this is the KBA, "says lawyer Remo Klinger, who represents the DUH in the official proceedings.

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