New VW CEO Matthias Müller (former chief Martin Winterkorn stepped down towards the beginning of the diesel scandal) said last week that VW recalls in Europe would start in January, with all cars slated to be "fixed" by the end of next year. As for US VWs, any massive recall of the nearly half-million affected diesels here will be difficult to make work. VW is still figuring out how to deal with the 2016 model-year diesels, which are new a few months away from seeing the light of day because of the brouhaha. The company has been forced to resubmit those diesels to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for more testing.
Back in Germany, local investigators have searched Volkswagen's headquarters in Wolfsburg for more information on the so-called "defeat device" software built into VW's diesel engines. Volkswagen has set aside $7.3 billion to deal with the fallout from the scandal after estimating that as many as 11 million of its diesel-powered worldwide vehicles use software that essentially games emissions tests system. Without this cheater software, VW's diesels perform worse when they follow emissions regulations.