Orbital has persisted, particularly with developing their direct injection technology. Recently they have been working on combining their injection system on a small displacement engine with turbocharging and E100 fuel. The small displacement DI turbo concept is one being pursued by many automakers but the use of E100 allows for running at even higher boost and compression. This allows for greater overall efficiency overcoming some of the reduced energy density of ethanol compared to gasoline. The use of ethanol in an application like this allows for even smaller displacements while maintaining performance and getting higher specific efficiency.