With notoriously bad traffic and pollution, Shanghai may institute a congestion charge, similar to what's been seen in London and Singapore (and considered in San Francisco). The gist of congestion charging is that drivers are charged a small amount for entering a certain part of the city - in the UK, entering central London between 7:00 AM and 6:00 PM, Monday through Friday, costs drivers 10 pounds ($16.16).
In China's capital Beijing, smog levels have gotten so bad that the State Environmental Protection Administration will be removing one million cars from the city's streets. The Chinese government announced this week that a partial driving ban would be in place between August 7 and 20 in a hope that Beijing's perpetual smog will disappear. A previous ban of all government cars earlier this year saw traffic jams ease and blue skies return to the capital.