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Buying used cars on sites like Craigslist can be risky ... Buying used cars on sites like Craigslist can be risky (Alamy).
If people are spending money somewhere on the Internet, there are likely scammers there too, cashing in on unsuspecting shoppers. There has been a surge in online car buying in recent years, especially with used cars. This has led to a rise in fraud. Crooks post ads for nonexistent cars, shoppers wire funds for the vehicle, and, poof, that money vanishes into thin air.

Auto fraud accounts for 12 percent of all online purchase scams, totaling $64 million in consumer losses, according to the most recent Internet Crime Complaint Center annual report. Dependable Auto Shippers, one of the largest vehicle shipping service providers in the world, wants to make people aware of just how big of a risk this fraud poses.

"Shipping vehicles for online consumers is a large portion of our business, and we receive hundreds of calls every month from those who have fallen prey to online auto scams," said John Roehll, executive vice president and co-owner of DAS. "We want to raise awareness for consumers to be vigilant against scammers and protect them from online auto fraud."

DAS said that scammers entice their victims with incredibly cheap prices and the promise of using a shipping service to deliver the vehicle. They'll also demand immediate payment due to some bogus reason, such as military deployment or a tragic family emergency. Victims then send an unrecoverable payment through a money transfer or money order for a nonexistent vehicle.

The average amount of money lost on one of these scams is $3,700, according to the Internet Criminal Complaint Center.

DAS offered five tips you should follow in order to prevent yourself from used car fraud:

1. Never wire payment

Legitimate dealers will never ask for a wire transfer. If you're dealing with a private seller and they want you to us something like Western Union, request an alternate form of payment. Scammers use wire transfers because it is essentially the same thing as sending cash in the mail. Once the money is gone, it cannot be recovered.

2. Talk on the phone

A seller making excuses for not being able to speak on the phone is a big red flag. By speaking with the seller (email doesn't count), you can get more info on the background and history of the person or business.

3. Slow down

If a seller says the vehicle is being held by a transportation company and will ship as soon as payment is received, take a minute to call the shipping company to validate the arrangement. Scammers love to pressure their victims into quickly sending payment with fake sob stories or really low prices on the car. You need to be diligent, do your homework and take your time with a big purchase like this.

4. Examine information carefully

A listing with stock images of the car without a visible license plate is an indication of a scam. If there are pictures, make sure the colors, body work and other distinguishing features match up with the description.

5. Get your own CARFAX report

Scammers like to pull real CARFAX reports of cars that do exist for their fake listings. You absolutely should order your own vehicle history report. The National Insurance Crime maintains a free database that includes flood damage and other information so consumers can investigate a car's history. Always check that the registration or license plate matches the seller's name.

Officials: Car-Repair Scammers Cause More Damage


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    • 1 Second Ago
  • 45 Comments
      • 10 Months Ago
      I was almost scam by so call private owner,he list his car on best ride.com an try to get me to send westen union to AOL repesenter to hold the money while he would ship the car by DAS at no cost to me. I did my homework,find the shipping locaction DAS was closed down, I brought it to the seller attion. Once he found out that I din't wire the money, he became rude an disrepectful. Thank u for the head up, He is still list the 05 chrysler convetiabl( white) on line Buyer Beware! ! !
      Tom P
      • 1 Year Ago
      If the car is local and you can physically inspect it and take it to a mechanic and get your own Carfax, why not?
        solarflare69
        • 1 Year Ago
        @Tom P
        Because adding all that to the cost of the car can be more than just risking it and then paying for repairs. Cause if you buy a car valued at 3000$ for 1000$ and have to pay 2000$ for repairs.... it's a better deal than going buying the 3000$ car when it's only a matter of time before you have to make the 2000$ repair anyway.
          cucubos
          • 3 Months Ago
          @solarflare69

          Lincoln removed McClellan as general-in-chief and appointed Henry Wager Halleck in March 1862, after McClellan's "Harrison's Landing Letter", in which he offered unsolicited political advice to Lincoln urging caution in the war effort.[205] McClellan's letter incensed Radical Republicans, who successfully pressured Lincoln to appointJohn Pope, a Republican, as head of the new Army of Virginia. Pope complied with Lincoln's strategic desire to move toward Richmond from the north, thus protecting the capital from attack.[206]

          However, lacking requested reinforcements from McClellan, now commanding the Army of the Potomac, Pope was soundly defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run in the summer of 1862, forcing the Army of the Potomac to defend Washington for a second time.[206] The war also expanded with naval operations in 1862 when the CSSVirginia, formerly the USS Merrimack, damaged or destroyed three Union vessels in Norfolk, Virginia, before being engaged and damaged by the USS Monitor. Lincoln closely reviewed the dispatches and interrogated naval officers during their clash in the Battle of Hampton Roads.[207]

          Despite his dissatisfaction with McClellan's failure to reinforce Pope, Lincoln was desperate, and restored him to command of all forces around Washington, to the dismay of all in his cabinet but Seward.[208] Two days after McClellan's return to command, General Robert E. Lee's forces crossed the Potomac River into Maryland, leading to the Battle of Antietam in September 1862.[209] The ensuing Union victory was among the bloodiest in American history, but it enabled Lincoln to announce that he would issue an Emancipation Proclamation in January. Having composed the Proclamation some time earlier, Lincoln had waited for a military victory to publish it to avoid it being perceived as the product of desperation.[210]

          cucubos
          • 3 Months Ago
          @solarflare69

          Burnside, against the advice of the president, prematurely launched an offensive across the Rappahannock River and was stunningly defeated by Lee at Fredericksburgin December. Not only had Burnside been defeated on the battlefield, but his soldiers were disgruntled and undisciplined. Desertions during 1863 were in the thousands and they increased after Fredericksburg.[212] Lincoln brought in Joseph Hooker, despite his record of loose talk about the need for a military dictatorship.[213]

          The mid-term elections in 1862 brought the Republicans severe losses due to sharp disfavor with the administration over its failure to deliver a speedy end to the war, as well as rising inflation, new high taxes, rumors of corruption, the suspension of habeas corpus, the military draft law, and fears that freed slaves would undermine the labor market. The Emancipation Proclamation announced in September gained votes for the Republicans in the rural areas of New England and the upper Midwest, but it lost votes in the cities and the lower Midwest.[214]

          While Republicans were discouraged, Democrats were energized and did especially well in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and New York. The Republicans did maintain their majorities in Congress and in the major states, except New York. The Cincinnati Gazette contended that the voters were "depressed by the interminable nature of this war, as so far conducted, and by the rapid exhaustion of the national resources without progress".[214]

          In the spring of 1863, Lincoln was optimistic about upcoming military campaigns to the point of thinking the end of the war could be near if a string of victories could be put together; these plans included Hooker's attack on Lee north of Richmond, Rosecrans' on Chattanooga, Grant's on Vicksburg, and a naval assault on Charleston.[215]

          Hooker was routed by Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May,[216] but continued to command his troops for some weeks. He ignored Lincoln's order to divide his troops, and possibly force Lee to do the same inHarper's Ferry, and tendered his resignation, which Lincoln accepted. He was replaced by George Meade, who followed Lee into Pennsylvania for the Gettysburg Campaign, which was a victory for the Union, though Lee's army avoided capture. At the same time, after initial setbacks, Grant laid siege to Vicksburg and the Union navy attained some success in Charleston harbor.[217] After the Battle of Gettysburg, Lincoln clearly understood that his military decisions would be more effectively carried out by conveying his orders through his War Secretary or his general-in-chief on to his generals, who resented his civilian interference with their own plans. Even so, he often continued to give detailed directions to his generals as Commander-in-Chief.[218]

      • 1 Year Ago
      why would anyone buy a car online??? one needs to see and test drive it. to me, anyone who would do this deserves to be ripped off. they are candidates for the darwin awards!
        solarflare69
        • 1 Year Ago
        .... and to add more it's also like people who go around buying used refrigerators that don't work. Or computers that don't work. You'd be surprised at how cheap people will sell stuff that they don't know how to fix.... like a computer that's slow because of malware(easy to fix at no cost to some people but not worth paying someone 100$ to repair).... So yeah there's money in it. Especially for corrupt used car dealers who can just put some alcohol in the gas tank to get it to run perfect for a short period of time or what ever. Which brings me to another point. What good is a test drive or seeing the thing when there are industry secrets to make it appear to run good. I'm a hypocrite thou cause i think anyone who buys a used car deserves a darwin award. But brand new cars these days are just as risky so it's a lose lose situation
        Tom P
        • 1 Year Ago
        I am retired andI buy cars online from Craigslist only in my area and clean them up and resell them. I have NEVER had 1 single problem
        Alphonso Carioti
        • 1 Year Ago
        Yep.
        cucubos
        • 3 Months Ago

        After the Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run and the retirement of the aged Winfield Scott in late 1861, Lincoln appointed Major General George B. McClellan general-in-chief of all the Union armies.[203]McClellan, a young West Point graduate, railroad executive, and Pennsylvania Democrat, took several months to plan and attempt his Peninsula Campaign, longer than Lincoln wanted. The campaign's objective was to capture Richmond by moving the Army of the Potomac by boat to the peninsula and then overland to the Confederate capital. McClellan's repeated delays frustrated Lincoln and Congress, as did his position that no troops were needed to defend Washington. Lincoln insisted on holding some of McClellan's troops in defense of the capital; McClellan, who consistently overestimated the strength of Confederate troops, blamed this decision for the ultimate failure of the Peninsula Campaign.[204]

        solarflare69
        • 1 Year Ago
        because the price is right to the point where the majority of repairs can be made for cheap? Lots of people buy houses sight unseen knowing they will have to put work in them to get things back in working condition. It's not darwin worthy if they buy it expecting it to be junk.
          cucubos
          • 3 Months Ago
          @solarflare69

          Meade's failure to capture Lee's army as it retreated from Gettysburg, and the continued passivity of the Army of the Potomac, persuaded Lincoln that a change in command was needed. General Ulysses S. Grant's victories at the Battle of Shiloh and in the Vicksburg campaign impressed Lincoln and made Grant a strong candidate to head the Union Army. Responding to criticism of Grant after Shiloh, Lincoln had said, "I can't spare this man. He fights."[237] With Grant in command, Lincoln felt the Union Army could relentlessly pursue a series of coordinated offensives in multiple theaters, and have a top commander who agreed on the use of black troops.[238]

          Nevertheless, Lincoln was concerned that Grant might be considering a candidacy for President in 1864, as McClellan was. Lincoln arranged for an intermediary to make inquiry into Grant's political intentions, and being assured that he had none, submitted to the Senate Grant's promotion to commander of the Union Army. He obtained Congress's consent to reinstate for Grant the rank of Lieutenant General, which no officer had held since George Washington.[239]

          Grant waged his bloody Overland Campaign in 1864. This is often characterized as a war of attrition, given high Union losses at battles such as the Battle of the Wilderness and Cold Harbor. Even though they had the advantage of fighting on the defensive, the Confederate forces had "almost as high a percentage of casualties as the Union forces".[240] The high casualty figures of the Union alarmed the North; Grant had lost a third of his army, and Lincoln asked what Grant's plans were, to which the general replied, "I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer."[241]

          The Confederacy lacked reinforcements, so Lee's army shrank with every costly battle. Grant's army moved south, crossed the James River, forcing a siege and trench warfare outside Petersburg, Virginia. Lincoln then made an extended visit to Grant's headquarters at City Point, Virginia. This allowed the president to confer in person with Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman about the hostilities, as Sherman coincidentally managed a hasty visit to Grant from his position in North Carolina.[242] Lincoln and the Republican Party mobilized support for the draft throughout the North, and replaced the Union losses.[243]

          Lincoln authorized Grant to target the Confederate infrastructure—such as plantations, railroads, and bridges—hoping to destroy the South's morale and weaken its economic ability to continue fighting. Grant's move to Petersburg resulted in the obstruction of three railroads between Richmond and the South. This strategy allowed Generals Sherman and Philip Sheridan to destroy plantations and towns in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley. The damage caused by Sherman's March to the Sea through Georgia in 1864 was limited to a 60-mile (97 km) swath, but neither Lincoln nor his commanders saw destruction as the main goal, but rather defeat of the Confederate armies. Mark E. Neely, Jr. has argued that there was no effort to engage in "total war" against civilians which he believed did take place during World War II.[244][vague]

          Confederate general Jubal Anderson Early began a series of assaults in the North that threatened the Capital. During Early's raid on Washington, D.C. in 1864, Lincoln was watching the combat from an exposed position; Captain Oliver Wendell Holmes shouted at him, "Get down, you damn fool, before you get shot!"[245] After repeated calls on Grant to defend Washington, Sheridan was appointed and the threat from Early was dispatched.[246]

          As Grant continued to wear down Lee's forces, efforts to discuss peace began. Confederate Vice President Stephens led a group to meet with Lincoln, Seward, and others at Hampton Roads. Lincoln refused to allow any negotiation with the Confederacy as a coequal; his sole objective was an agreement to end the fighting and the meetings produced no results.[247] On April 1, 1865, Grant successfully outflanked Lee's forces in the Battle of Five Forks and nearly encircled Petersburg, and the Confederate government evacuated Richmond. Days later, when that city fell, Lincoln visited the vanquished Confederate capital; as he walked through the city, white Southerners were stone-faced, but freedmen greeted him as a hero. On April 9, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox and the war was effectively over.[248]

          cucubos
          • 3 Months Ago
          @solarflare69

          Lincoln understood that the Federal government's power to end slavery was limited by the Constitution, which before 1865, committed the issue to individual states. He argued before and during his election that the eventual extinction of slavery would result from preventing its expansion into new U.S. territory. At the beginning of the war, he also sought to persuade the states to accept compensated emancipation in return for their prohibition of slavery. Lincoln believed that curtailing slavery in these ways would economically expunge it, as envisioned by the Founding Fathers, under the constitution.[219] President Lincoln rejected two geographically limited emancipation attempts by Major General John C. Frémont in August 1861 and by Major General David Hunter in May 1862, on the grounds that it was not within their power, and it would upset the border states loyal to the Union.[220]

          On June 19, 1862, endorsed by Lincoln, Congress passed an act banning slavery on all federal territory. In July 1862, the Second Confiscation Act was passed, which set up court procedures that could free the slaves of anyone convicted of aiding the rebellion. Although Lincoln believed it was not within Congress's power to free the slaves within the states, he approved the bill in deference to the legislature. He felt such action could only be taken by the Commander-in-Chief using war powers granted to the president by the Constitution, and Lincoln was planning to take that action. In that month, Lincoln discussed a draft of the Emancipation Proclamation with his cabinet. In it, he stated that "as a fit and necessary military measure, on January 1, 1863, all persons held as slaves in the Confederate states will thenceforward, and forever, be 

          Lincoln understood that the Federal government's power to end slavery was limited by the Constitution, which before 1865, committed the issue to individual states. He argued before and during his election that the eventual extinction of slavery would result from preventing its expansion into new U.S. territory. At the beginning of the war, he also sought to persuade the states to accept compensated emancipation in return for their prohibition of slavery. Lincoln believed that curtailing slavery in these ways would economically expunge it, as envisioned by the Founding Fathers, under the constitution.[219] President Lincoln rejected two geographically limited emancipation attempts by Major General John C. Frémont in August 1861 and by Major General David Hunter in May 1862, on the grounds that it was not within their power, and it would upset the border states loyal to the Union.[220]

          On June 19, 1862, endorsed by Lincoln, Congress passed an act banning slavery on all federal territory. In July 1862, the Second Confiscation Act was passed, which set up court procedures that could free the slaves of anyone convicted of aiding the rebellion. Although Lincoln believed it was not within Congress's power to free the slaves within the states, he approved the bill in deference to the legislature. He felt such action could only be taken by the Commander-in-Chief using war powers granted to the president by the Constitution, and Lincoln was planning to take that action. In that month, Lincoln discussed a draft of the Emancipation Proclamation with his cabinet. In it, he stated that "as a fit and necessary military measure, on January 1, 1863, all persons held as slaves in the Confederate states will thenceforward, and forever, be 

          cucubos
          • 3 Months Ago
          @solarflare69

          Privately, Lincoln concluded at this point that the slave base of the Confederacy had to be eliminated. However Copperheads argued that emancipation was a stumbling block to peace and reunification. Republican editor Horace Greeley of the highly influential New York Tribune fell for the ploy,[222] and Lincoln refuted it directly in a shrewd letter of August 22, 1862. The President said the primary goal of his actions as president (he used the first person pronoun and explicitly refers to his "official duty") was preserving the Union:[223]

          My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union ... [¶] I have here stated my purpose according to my view of official duty; and I intend no modification of my oft-expressed personal wish that all men everywhere could be free.[224]

          The Emancipation Proclamation, issued on September 22, 1862, and put into effect on January 1, 1863, declared free the slaves in 10 states not then under Union control, with exemptions specified for areas already under Union control in two states.[225] Lincoln spent the next 100 days preparing the army and the nation for emancipation, while Democrats rallied their voters in the 1862 off-year elections by warning of the threat freed slaves posed to northern whites.[226]

          Once the abolition of slavery in the rebel states became a military objective, as Union armies advanced south, more slaves were liberated until all three million of them in Confederate territory were freed. Lincoln's comment on the signing of the Proclamation was: "I never, in my life, felt more certain that I was doing right, than I do in signing this paper."[227] For some time, Lincoln continued earlier plans to set up colonies for the newly freed slaves. He commented favorably on colonization in the Emancipation Proclamation, but all attempts at such a massive undertaking failed.[228] A few days after Emancipation was announced, 13 Republican governors met at the War Governors' Conference; they supported the president's Proclamation, but suggested the removal of General George B. McClellan as commander of the Union Army.[229]

          Enlisting former slaves in the military was official government policy after the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation. By the spring of 1863, Lincoln was ready to recruit black troops in more than token numbers. In a letter to Andrew Johnson, the military governor of Tennessee, encouraging him to lead the way in raising black troops, Lincoln wrote, "The bare sight of 50,000 armed and drilled black soldiers on the banks of the Mississippi would end the rebellion at once".[230] By the end of 1863, at Lincoln's direction, General Lorenzo Thomas had recruited 20 regiments of blacks from the Mississippi Valley.[231] Frederick Douglass once observed of Lincoln: "In his company, I was never reminded of my humble origin, or of my unpopular color".[232]

          cucubos
          • 3 Months Ago
          @solarflare69

          McClellan then resisted the President's demand that he pursue Lee's retreating and exposed army, while his counterpart General Don Carlos Buell likewise refused orders to move the Army of the Ohio against rebel forces in eastern Tennessee. As a result, Lincoln replaced Buell with William Rosecrans; and, after the 1862 midterm elections, he replaced McClellan with Republican Ambrose Burnside. Both of these replacements were political moderates and prospectively more supportive of the Commander-in-Chief.[211]

          cucubos
          • 3 Months Ago
          @solarflare69

          With the great Union victory at the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, and the defeat of the Copperheads in the Ohio election in the fall, Lincoln maintained a strong base of party support and was in a strong position to redefine the war effort, despite the New York City draft riots. The stage was set for his address at the Gettysburg battlefield cemetery on November 19, 1863.[233] Defying Lincoln's prediction that "the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here," the Address became the most quoted speech in American history.[234]

          In 272 words, and three minutes, Lincoln asserted the nation was born not in 1789, but in 1776, "conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal". He defined the war as an effort dedicated to these principles of liberty and equality for all. The emancipation of slaves was now part of the national war effort. He declared that the deaths of so many brave soldiers would not be in vain, that slavery would end as a result of the losses, and the future of democracy in the world would be assured, that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth". Lincoln concluded that the Civil War had a profound objective: a new birth of freedom in the nation.[235][236]

          cucubos
          • 3 Months Ago
          @solarflare69

          Burnside, against the advice of the president, prematurely launched an offensive across the Rappahannock River and was stunningly defeated by Lee at Fredericksburgin December. Not only had Burnside been defeated on the battlefield, but his soldiers were disgruntled and undisciplined. Desertions during 1863 were in the thousands and they increased after Fredericksburg.[212] Lincoln brought in Joseph Hooker, despite his record of loose talk about the need for a military dictatorship.[213]

          The mid-term elections in 1862 brought the Republicans severe losses due to sharp disfavor with the administration over its failure to deliver a speedy end to the war, as well as rising inflation, new high taxes, rumors of corruption, the suspension of habeas corpus, the military draft law, and fears that freed slaves would undermine the labor market. The Emancipation Proclamation announced in September gained votes for the Republicans in the rural areas of New England and the upper Midwest, but it lost votes in the cities and the lower Midwest.[214]

          While Republicans were discouraged, Democrats were energized and did especially well in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and New York. The Republicans did maintain their majorities in Congress and in the major states, except New York. The Cincinnati Gazette contended that the voters were "depressed by the interminable nature of this war, as so far conducted, and by the rapid exhaustion of the national resources without progress".[214]

          In the spring of 1863, Lincoln was optimistic about upcoming military campaigns to the point of thinking the end of the war could be near if a string of victories could be put together; these plans included Hooker's attack on Lee north of Richmond, Rosecrans' on Chattanooga, Grant's on Vicksburg, and a naval assault on Charleston.[215]

          Hooker was routed by Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May,[216] but continued to command his troops for some weeks. He ignored Lincoln's order to divide his troops, and possibly force Lee to do the same inHarper's Ferry, and tendered his resignation, which Lincoln accepted. He was replaced by George Meade, who followed Lee into Pennsylvania for the Gettysburg Campaign, which was a victory for the Union, though Lee's army avoided capture. At the same time, after initial setbacks, Grant laid siege to Vicksburg and the Union navy attained some success in Charleston harbor.[217] After the Battle of Gettysburg, Lincoln clearly understood that his military decisions would be more effectively carried out by conveying his orders through his War Secretary or his general-in-chief on to his generals, who resented his civilian interference with their own plans. Even so, he often continued to give detailed directions to his generals as Commander-in-Chief.[218]

      Brian
      • 3 Months Ago

      I saw a car online and the price was too good to believe.  I contacted seller by email and he sent me the following.  I emailed him back stating that I was willing to drive to him with a cashier's check or cash, inspect the vehicle and close the deal.  I ran the VIN and license plate at CarFax and there was no report against either.  I also asked him to call me...so far no response.  Smells like a scam to me.  Be careful out there.:


      I attached some photos for you. I am recently moved at my residence house in North Palm Beach, FL and the car is here as well.If you want my car we can close this deal through Aol Autos Sale, in the most transparent and easiest way possible for both of us.Here is how It works to close the deal through Aol Autos Sale,- I will only require a refundable deposit of $2,000 (in held by Aol Autos Sale till you receive and inspect the vehicle) and rest of the balance after the inspection period (5 days)..- I will offer you 5 days to inspect the car at your home to be sure that the car is in perfect condition you can test drive the car or inspected anywhere (dealership or personal mechanic)- In case if you not accept the car, for any reasons Aol Autos will refund you in full your deposit $2,000 transaction is canceled and I am responsible with the shipping back on my expense.- The car will come in container up on the truck will be insured and paid by me all shipping fees. In maximum 2-3 days you have the car at your door with ( Dependable Auto Shippers )- You will receive the car with all documents you need for ownership, manuals, title and bill of sale authenticated at a law office of notary signed by me and both keys of the car. Aol Auto Sale will send you all information after I will start the transaction ( Buyer and Seller Program with Terms & Conditions, Invoice with all info and Payment Information )Now if you are ready to move forward email me ( Your Full Name/ Shipping Address/ Phone Number ) and I will start the transaction right away.

       

        Mit
        • 2 Months Ago
        @Brian

        HI Brian,  I GOT THE SAME MAIL FROM one of the private owner, But isn't transaction through AOL safer, they take all guarantee, can you please help me with that. 

        Bersy
        • 3 Months Ago
        @Brian

        Oh my gosh! I'm so thankful I found this post! I received practically the same message from a "private owner" and indeed the price was too good to be true!!!!  The message is almost verbatim! It's so scary how many scams are out there!

      cucubos
      • 3 Months Ago
      Further information:  Slave and free states and  Abraham Lincoln and slavery

      By the 1850s, slavery was still legal in the southern United States, but had been generally outlawed in the northern states, including Illinois, whose original 1818 Constitution forbade slavery, as required by theNorthwest Ordinance.[120] Lincoln disapproved of slavery, and the spread of slavery to new U.S. territory in the west.[121] He returned to politics to oppose the pro-slavery Kansas–Nebraska Act (1854); this law repealed the slavery-restricting Missouri Compromise (1820). Senior Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois had incorporated popular sovereignty into the Act. Douglas' provision, which Lincoln opposed, specified settlers had the right to determine locally whether to allow slavery in new U.S. territory, rather than have such a decision restricted by the national Congress.[122]

      Eric Foner (2010) contrasts the abolitionists and anti-slavery Radical Republicans of the Northeast who saw slavery as a sin, with the conservative Republicans who thought it was bad because it hurt white people and blocked progress. Foner argues that Lincoln was a moderate in the middle, opposing slavery primarily because it violated the republicanism principles of the Founding Fathers, especially the equality of all men and democratic self-government as expressed in the Declaration of Independence.[123]

      cucubos
      • 3 Months Ago

      The Senate campaign featured the seven Lincoln–Douglas debates of 1858, the most famous political debates in American history.[138] The principals stood in stark contrast both physically and politically. Lincoln warned that "The Slave Power" was threatening the values of republicanism, and accused Douglas of distorting the values of the Founding Fathers that all men are created equal, while Douglas emphasized his Freeport Doctrine, that local settlers were free to choose whether to allow slavery or not, and accused Lincoln of having joined the abolitionists.[139] The debates had an atmosphere of a prize fight and drew crowds in the thousands. Lincoln stated Douglas' popular sovereignty theory was a threat to the nation's morality and that Douglas represented a conspiracy to extend slavery to free states. Douglas said that Lincoln was defying the authority of the U.S. Supreme Court and the Dred Scott decision.[140]

      Though the Republican legislative candidates won more popular votes, the Democrats won more seats, and the legislature re-elected Douglas to the Senate. Despite the bitterness of the defeat for Lincoln, his articulation of the issues gave him a national political reputation.[141] In May 1859, Lincoln purchased the Illinois Staats-Anzeiger, a German-language newspaper which was consistently supportive; most of the state's 130,000 German Americans voted Democratic but there was Republican support that a German-language paper could mobilize.[142]

      On February 27, 1860, New York party leaders invited Lincoln to give a speech at Cooper Union to a group of powerful Republicans. Lincoln argued that the Founding Fathers had little use for popular sovereignty and had repeatedly sought to restrict slavery. Lincoln insisted the moral foundation of the Republicans required opposition to slavery, and rejected any "groping for some middle ground between the right and the wrong".[143] Despite his inelegant appearance—many in the audience thought him awkward and even ugly[144]—Lincoln demonstrated an intellectual leadership that brought him into the front ranks of the party and into contention for the Republican presidential nomination. Journalist Noah Brooks reported, "No man ever before made such an impression on his first appeal to a New York audience."[145][146]

      Historian Donald described the speech as a "superb political move for an unannounced candidate, to appear in one rival's (William H. Seward) own state at an event sponsored by the second rival's (Salmon P. Chase) loyalists, while not mentioning either by name during its delivery".[147] In response to an inquiry about his presidential intentions, Lincoln said, "The taste is in my mouth a little."[148]

        cucubos
        • 3 Months Ago
        @cucubos

        After the Battle of Fort Sumter, Lincoln realized the importance of taking immediate executive control of the war and making an overall strategy to put down the rebellion. Lincoln encountered an unprecedented political and military crisis, and he responded as commander-in-chief, using unprecedented powers. He expanded his war powers, and imposed a blockade on all the Confederate shipping ports, disbursed funds before appropriation by Congress, and after suspending habeas corpus, arrested and imprisoned thousands of suspected Confederate sympathizers. Lincoln was supported by Congress and the northern public for these actions. In addition, Lincoln had to contend with reinforcing strong Union sympathies in the border slave states and keeping the war from becoming an international conflict.[190]

      cucubos
      • 3 Months Ago

      Abraham Lincoln was born February 12, 1809, the second child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm in Hardin County, Kentucky[6] (now LaRue County). He is a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, who migrated from Norfolk, England to Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's western migration, which passed through New JerseyPennsylvania, and Virginia.[7][8] Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky in the 1780s.[9] Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including six-year-old Thomas, the future president's father, witnessed the attack.[10][11] After his father's murder, Thomas was left to make his own way on the frontier, working at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s.[12][13]

      Lincoln's mother, Nancy, was the daughter of Lucy Shipley Hanks, and was born in what is now Mineral County, West Virginia, then part of Virginia. The identity of Lincoln's maternal grandfather is unclear.[14]According to William Ensign Lincoln's book The Ancestry of Abraham Lincoln, Nancy was the daughter of Joseph Hanks;[15] however, the debate continues over whether she was born out of wedlock. Lucy Hanks migrated to Kentucky with her daughter, Nancy. The two women resided with relatives in Washington County, Kentucky.[14][16]

      Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks were married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, and moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, following their marriage.[17] They became the parents of three children: Sarah, born on February 10, 1807; Abraham, on February 12, 1809; and another son, Thomas, who died in infancy.[18] Thomas Lincoln bought or leased several farms in Kentucky, including the Sinking Spring farm, where Abraham was born; however, a land title dispute soon forced the Lincolns to move.[19][20] In 1811 the family relocated eight miles north, to Knob Creek Farm, where Thomas acquired title to 230 acres (93 ha) of land. In 1815 a claimant in another land dispute sought to eject the family from the farm.[20] Of the 816.5 acres that Thomas held in Kentucky, he lost all but 200 acres (81 ha) of his land in court disputes over property titles.[21] Frustrated over the lack of security provided by Kentucky courts, Thomas sold the remaining land he held in Kentucky in 1814, and began planning a move to Indiana, where the land survey process was more reliable and the ability for an individual to retain land titles was more secure.[22]

      In 1816 the family moved north across the Ohio River to Indiana, a free, non-slaveholding territory, where they settled in an "unbroken forest"[23] in Hurricane Township, Perry County. (Their land in southern Indiana became part of Spencer County, Indiana, when the county was established in 1818.)[24][25] The farm is preserved as part of the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial. In 1860 Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery"; but mainly due to land title difficulties in Kentucky.[21][26] During the family's years in Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas Lincoln worked as a farmer, cabinetmaker, and carpenter.[27] He owned farms, several town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, and guarded prisoners. Thomas and Nancy Lincoln were also members of a Separate Baptists church, which had restrictive moral standards and opposed alcohol, dancing, and slavery.[28] Within a year of the family's arrival in Indiana, Thomas claimed title to 160 acres (65 ha) of Indiana land. Despite some financial challenges he eventually obtained clear title to 80 acres (32 ha) of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek community in Spencer County.[29] Prior to the family's move to Illinois in 1830, Thomas had acquired an additional twenty acres of land adjacent to his property.[30]

      cucubos
      • 3 Months Ago

      In his 2005 book, Democracy and Populism: Fear and Hatred, Lukacs writes about the current state of American democracy. He warns that the populism he perceives as ascendant in the U.S. renders it vulnerable to demagoguery. He claims that a transformation from liberal democracy to populism can be seen in the replacement of knowledge and history with propaganda and infotainment. In the same book, Lukacs criticizes legalized abortionpornographycloning, and sexual permissiveness, as marking what he sees as the increasing decadence, depravity, corruption and amorality of modern American society.[1]

      More recently, he has written June 1941: Hitler and Stalin (2006), a study of the two leaders with a focus on the events leading up to Operation Barbarossa. In 2007, Lukacs published George Kennan: A Study of Character, a biography of his good friend George F. Kennan, based on privileged access to Kennan's private papers. His book Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat (2008) is a continuation of a series of books Lukacs has written on what he regards as the greatness of Winston Churchill. Last Rites (2009) continues the "auto-history" he published in Confessions of an Original Sinner (1990). His latest work, The Future of History, was released on April 26, 2011.

      cucubos
      • 3 Months Ago

      From the early 1830s, Lincoln was a steadfast Whig and professed to friends in 1861 to be, "an old line Whig, a disciple of Henry Clay".[92] The party, including Lincoln, favored economic modernization in banking, protective tariffs to fund internal improvements including railroads, and espoused urbanization as well.[93]

      In 1846, Lincoln was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served one two-year term. He was the only Whig in the Illinois delegation, but he showed his party loyalty by participating in almost all votes and making speeches that echoed the party line.[94] Lincoln, in collaboration with abolitionist Congressman Joshua R. Giddings, wrote a bill to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia with compensation for the owners, enforcement to capture fugitive slaves, and a popular vote on the matter. He abandoned the bill when it failed to garner sufficient Whig supporters.[95]

      On foreign and military policy, Lincoln spoke out against the Mexican–American War, which he attributed to President Polk's desire for "military glory—that attractive rainbow, that rises in showers of blood".[96] Lincoln also supported the Wilmot Proviso, which, if it had been adopted, would have banned slavery in any U.S. territory won from Mexico.[97]

      Lincoln emphasized his opposition to Polk by drafting and introducing his Spot Resolutions. The war had begun with a Mexican slaughter of American soldiers in territory disputed by Mexico and the U.S. Polk insisted that Mexican soldiers had "invaded our territory and shed the blood of our fellow-citizens on our own soil".[98][99] Lincoln demanded that Polk show Congress the exact spot on which blood had been shed and prove that the spot was on American soil.[99]

      Congress never enacted the resolution or even debated it, the national papers ignored it, and it resulted in a loss of political support for Lincoln in his district. One Illinois newspaper derisively nicknamed him "spotty Lincoln".[100][101][102] Lincoln later regretted some of his statements, especially his attack on the presidential war-making powers.[103]

      Realizing Clay was unlikely to win the presidency, Lincoln, who had pledged in 1846 to serve only one term in the House, supported General Zachary Taylor for the Whig nomination in the 1848 presidential election.[104] Taylor won and Lincoln hoped to be appointed Commissioner of the General Land Office, but that lucrative patronage job went to an Illinois rival, Justin Butterfield, considered by the administration to be a highly skilled lawyer, but in Lincoln's view, an "old fossil".[105] The administration offered him the consolation prize of secretary or governor of the Oregon Territory. This distant territory was a Democratic stronghold, and acceptance of the post would have effectively ended his legal and political career in Illinois, so he declined and resumed his law practice.[106]

      HarryDe
      • 8 Months Ago
      Would absolutely recommend using the CarFax VIN checker - completely free http://www.lemoncheck.com/
      cucubos
      • 3 Months Ago
      • The Great Powers and Eastern Europe (New York: American Book Co., 1953).
      • A History of the Cold War (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1961).
      • Decline and Rise of Europe: A Study in Recent History, With Particular Emphasis on the Development of a European Consciousness (Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1965).
      • A New history of the Cold War (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966).
      • Historical Consciousness; or, The Remembered Past (New York: Harper & Row, 1968).
      • The Passing of the Modern Age (New York: Harper & Row, 1970).
      • A Sketch of the History of Chestnut Hill College, 1924–1974 (Chestnut Hill, PA: Chestnut Hill College, 1975).
      • The Last European War: September 1939–December 1941 (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press, 1976).
      • 1945: Year Zero (New York: Doubleday, 1978).
      • Philadelphia: Patricians and Philistines, 1900–1950 (New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1981).
      • Outgrowing Democracy: A History of the United States in the Twentieth century (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1984).
      • Budapest 1900: A Historical Portrait of a City and Its Culture (New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988).
      • Confessions of an Original Sinner (New York: Ticknor and Fields, 1990).
      • The Duel: 10 May–31 July 1940: the Eighty-Day Struggle between Churchill and Hitler (New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1991).
      • The End of the Twentieth Century and the End of the Modern Age (New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1993).
      • Destinations Past: Traveling through History with John Lukacs (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1994).
      • The Hitler of History (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1997).
      • George F. Kennan and the Origins of Containment, 1944–1946: the Kennan-Lukacs CorrespondenceIntroduction by John Lukacs. (Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri Press, 1997).
      • A Thread of Years (New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University Press, 1998).
      • Five Days in London, May 1940 (New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University Press, 1999).
      • A Student's Guide to the Study of History (Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 2000).
      • Churchill: Visionary, Statesman, Historian (New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University Press, 2002).
      • At the End of an Age (New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University Press, 2002).
      • A New Republic: A History Of The United States In The Twentieth Century(New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University Press, 2004).
      • Democracy and Populism: Fear & Hatred (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005).
      • Remembered Past: John Lukacs On History, Historians & Historical Knowledge: A Reader (Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 2005).
      • June 1941: Hitler and Stalin. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2006 (ISBN 0-300-11437-0).
      • George Kennan: A Study of Character. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2007 (ISBN 0-300-12221-7).
      • Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat: The Dire Warning. New York: Basic Books, 2008 (ISBN 0-465-00287-0).
      • Last Rites. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2009 (ISBN 978-0-300-11438-6).
      • The Legacy of the Second World War. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2010 (ISBN 0-300-11439-7).
      • The Future of History. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2011 (ISBN 0-300-16956-6).
      • A Short History of the Twentieth Century. Harvard University Press, September 16, 2013 (ISBN 978-0-674-72536-2)
      cucubos
      • 3 Months Ago

      He subsequently decided not to join the ROTC, saying in a letter to the officer in charge of the program he had planned to join that he opposed the war, but did not think it was honorable to use ROTC, National Guard, or Reserve service to avoid serving in Vietnam. He further stated that because he opposed the war, he would not volunteer to serve in uniform, but would subject himself to the draft, and would serve if selected only as a way "to maintain my political viability within the system."[19] Clinton registered for the draft and received a high number (311), meaning that those whose birthdays had been drawn as numbers 1 to 310 would have to be drafted before him, which was unlikely. Clinton's political opponents charge that he used Fulbright's influence to avoid military service.[20] Colonel Eugene Holmes, the Army officer who had been involved with Clinton's ROTC application, suspected that Clinton attempted to manipulate the situation to avoid the draft and avoid serving in uniform. He issued a notarized statement during the 1992 presidential campaign: "I was informed by the draft board that it was of interest to Senator Fulbright's office that Bill Clinton, a Rhodes Scholar, should be admitted to the ROTC program ... I believe that he purposely deceived me, using the possibility of joining the ROTC as a ploy to work with the draft board to delay his induction and get a new draft classification."[21]

      During the 1992 campaign it was revealed that Clinton's uncle had attempted to secure him a position in the Navy Reserve, which would have kept him from going to Vietnam. This effort was unsuccessful and Clinton said in 1992 that he had been unaware of it until then.[22] Although legal, Clinton's actions with respect to the draft and deciding whether to serve in the military were criticized by conservatives and some Vietnam veterans during his first presidential campaign.[23] Clinton's 1992 campaign manager, James Carville, successfully argued that Clinton's letter in which he declined to join the ROTC should be made public, insisting that voters, many of whom had also opposed the Vietnam War, would understand and appreciate his position.[24]

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