• Mar 5th 2010 at 11:03AM
  • 39
Toyota has joined the Clean Energy Partnership (CEP) in Europe to help promote low- and zero-emission vehicles and related infrastructure. The automaker will be providing five of its Highlander-based FCHV-adv fuel-cell vehicles available for the CEP test fleet in Berlin and Hamburg, Germany. In addition, Toyota and CEP member Total will help to build more hydrogen fueling stations in Germany starting with a completely CO2-free facility at the Berlin-Brandenburg Airport. Several other hydrogen stations in Berlin, Hamburg and along the routes between the two northern German cities are in the planning stages.

Toyota remains committed to bringing series production fuel cell vehicles to market by 2015 and sees fuel cells as the best long-term solution to zero emissions transportation. CEP is working to ramp up supplies of hydrogen from renewable sources to 50 percent of production over the next few years. Wind farms are now a common site in Germany and already produce one fifth of the electricity there.

[Source: Toyota]


The Clean Energy Partnership is growing: with new hydrogen filling stations, new regions and a new international automobile partner in Toyota

Under the CEP banner, strong partners are jointly developing the fuel of the future. With Toyota joining the partnership, the construction of new filling stations, and the establishment of additional hydrogen centres, the Clean Energy Partnership (CEP) is resolutely advancing on its path to creating sustainable mobility. The CEP sends out an important signal and with the assistance of the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs (BMVBS) is investing in a sustainable energy supply as well as the development of Germany as a business location.

The year 2010 started dynamically for the Clean Energy Partnership: with Toyota coming on board, the CEP has gained another strong partner from the automotive industry, further raising its international profile. Rainer Bomba, State Secretary at the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs (BMVBS), said: "Germany aims to be the lead market for electric mobility. What has happened here today shows that we are on the right track. The future of transport lies in the electrification of the propulsion systems. No single technology will be enough to solve this challenge on its own. Therefore, we are pursuing a non-technology-specific approach with our programmes and are promoting both battery and hydrogen and fuel cell technology. The industry, together with the German Federal Ministry of Transport, has earmarked around EUR 2 billion for this."

The new partner will help ensure that innovations from Germany go on to become global technical standards. Toyota and the CEP partners seek to build a sustainable society with the help of hydrogen technology, and to pave the way into an era of zero-emissions mobility. Toyota will contribute five FCHV-adv fuel-cell hybrid vehicles to the partnership by 2011, so there will then be a total of 40 emission-free cars from six car manufacturers on the road in Berlin and Hamburg.

Tadashi Arashima, President & CEO of Toyota Motor Europe, said: " We firmly believe that fuel cell hybrid vehicles, or FCHVs, will play a major role in reducing emissions and in achieving sustainable mobility, alongside petrol Hybrids, Plug-in Hybrids and pure electric vehicle. These various applications of full hybrid technology will each play their role and co-exist in the future. Toyota aims at the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles around 2015. To achieve this goal, needless to say, a hydrogen charging infrastructure is necessary. So, a close tie-up between car manufacturers and infrastructure companies are of vital importance. "

In Germany during the "Year of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells", the World Hydrogen Energy Conference (WHEC) in Essen, May 16-21, 2010 and the "Energy in Transition" information campaign will focus attention on the vast potential of hydrogen as a source of renewable energy. With the construction of the first CO2-free filling station by CEP's partner TOTAL at Berlin-Brandenburg Airport and the opening of a hydrogen filling station on Holzmarktstrasse by the partners Linde, Statoil and TOTAL in the spring, the CEP is actively supporting the continuous expansion of the hydrogen Infrastructure with the help of the BMVBS. Other filling stations in Berlin, Hamburg and along the A24 autobahn are in planning. The integration of renewable energy plays a major role in this. The declared objective of the Clean Energy Partnership is to increase the proportion of hydrogen produced using renewable energy to 50%. It is currently in talks with the German states of Baden-Württemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia in order to set up and integrate additional hydrogen centres, and thereby guarantee re-fuelling opportunities nationwide.

Dr. Klaus Bonhoff, Chairman of the Management Board of NOW GmbH (National Organisation for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology), declared: "The CEP is a success story of the National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Innovation Programme. The international interest it is receiving and Toyota's becoming a partner confirm that the private sector around the world is banking on hydrogen with fuel cells as an efficient and sustainable technology. We need these new technologies to introduce renewable energies to the transport sector, and use them there efficiently. Otherwise we will not reach the global climate targets."

The aim of the Clean Energy Partnership - an alliance of 13 leading companies - is to establish hydrogen as the "fuel of the future." Among the organisations involved in this trailblazing project are major technology, oil and energy players, as well as the majority of German car manufacturers and two leading public transport companies. Members include Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG), BMW, Daimler, Ford, GM/Opel, Hamburger Hochbahn, Linde, Shell, StatoilHydro, TOTAL, Toyota, Vattenfall Europe and Volkswagen. Since 2008, the CEP has also received funding from Germany's National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Innovation Programme (NIP). www.cleanenergypartnership.de

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    • 1 Second Ago
      • 5 Years Ago
      After over a decade of development, PEM fuel cells large enough to move a vehicle remain so expensive even OEMs can afford to build only a small handful of FCVs.

      There is no need for a PEM fuel cell range extender for light passenger vehicles.

      Just use an ICE-based range extender with gasoline/E85, or diesel, or natural gas.

      ICE-based range extenders cost a small fraction of any PEM-fuel cell stack.
      • 5 Years Ago
      yes wind power is important in producing Hydrogen, better than natural gas, but its more logical to put that power into BEV's which can then be used to stabilize the grid through V2G interfacing. We need base load power in the grid and that can be done somewhat with Hydro or even Nuclear, but both have many more issues. less impact renewables can use BEV's to create a base load for them. they go hand in hand

      hydrogen can never do that and it takes much more energy from renewables to power that FCV than a comparative BEV, even if both are coming from clean sources the FCV is wasting gobs of energy compared to the BEV.
        • 5 Years Ago
        letstakawalk, the writer of that article mis-understood rather badly, that's not unusual for publicity flaks. It isn't practical to use jet fuel to produce electricity to produce H2 for a fuel cell, the efficiency is far too low. Small commercial jets use a generator connected to the jet engine to produce the electricity needed by the planes, large jets use a separate gas turbine generator fueled by jet fuel. In both cases, the power output of the generator can be varied independently from the speed and power output of the jet engines, so instead of producing "excess power" the generator simply reduces power output which reduces fuel consumption. That's far more efficient than keeping the generator on "maximum power" then using "excess power" to make H2 for a fuel cell.

        Something similar happens in all petrol and diesel cars, the engine powers an alternator, but when the battery is fully charged the voltage regulator signals the alternator to reduce power output to prevent overcharging the battery and wasting power. When the alternator reduces power output, it also reduces its load on the engine, saving fuel. There is no "excess power" available.

        Now, a fuel cell might be used to replace the jet powered generator or gas turbine generator on a jet, but it would be re-fueled on the ground before each flight, either with compressed natural gas or methanol or jet fuel or H2.
        • 5 Years Ago

        You and I agree on this topic. FCs will be a minor niche in a small segment of the experimental aircraft market, while commercial jets will operate on some variation of liquid jet fuel.

        Supplemental FCs are being tested to provide supplemental power to commercial jets, as you describe - but in a slightly different methodology. The surplus electrical energy provided by the jet turbines is used to produce hydrogen, to operate the fuel cell and lower overall emissions.

        I know you would prefer they just charge a battery, but the Boeing engineers must have a convincing argument why a fuel cell is preferable to a battery for energy storage (probably something silly like better energy density or something).

        "The fuel cells will go into practical use as early as 2016, the companies said. They will be used for onboard power supply and are expected to cut jet fuel consumption used for power generation by about 14 percent.

        Onboard electricity is supplied by a generator powered by the jet engine.

        When the jet engine’s output rises, such as when the aircraft is flying at high altitudes, extra electricity is generated and water is broken down into hydrogen and oxygen.

        The fuel cells will use the hydrogen and oxygen to generate electricity through a chemical reaction when the jet engine’s output falls; for example, when the aircraft descends."

        • 5 Years Ago

        What you call mis-direction is what most others would call a reality.

        Good luck with that battery powered jumbo.

        When you can wrap your head around the fact that big steps are being made in hydrogen storage research, then perhaps you'll get it....until then you're the usual closed-minded ChrisM.

        You simply cannot grasp this concept and that's why you sound like a broken record over and over and over again. Don't you think the multitude of scientists don't realize the issues you keep bring up ad-nauseaum?

        I don't know how many times I've said this but truly consider going back to the stone-ages since pretty much everything you take for granted today would have been completely out of reach from you 50+ years ago.
        • 5 Years Ago
        Noz, are you trying to bring up that silly mis-direction again? What has aircraft to do with cars? AFAIK, no automaker produces cars that run on jet fuel, anyway, and nobody here has proposed battery powered 747s, except for your very own strawman.

        Batteries may be too heavy to fully power commercial aircraft, but H2 is too bulky to fuel commercial jets, it would leave too little room for passengers and cargo. Now the bulky nature of H2 isn't a big problem for really big rockets or military aircraft with huge fuselages and relatively tiny cockpits, but it is an insolvable problem for commercial use - unless you chemically attach those hydrogen atoms to a carbon chain and make a liquid hydrocarbon jet fuel just like the jet fuel made from petroleum. Of course, using liquid biofuels would be a lot more practical than making jet fuel from H2 and carbon.
        • 5 Years Ago
        Not like hydrogen works for those applications either. I think biofuels are the ones that are going to fill in that sector (for now).
        • 5 Years Ago

        So what do you propose for large transports and aircraft? Battery operated 747's?
        • 5 Years Ago
        Letstakawalk, while those experimental aircraft you mentioned were interesting, they were all lightweight motor-gliders or two seaters, propeller driven, relatively low speed - and they still have rather limited range. Nowhere near close to meeting the requirements of commercial aviation as to passenger space, load capacity, speed or range.

        BTW, those experimental aircraft also had batteries to provide the extra power required for take-off and landing. Hmm, come to think of it, performance is similar to experimental battery powered light aircraft.

        Now where we might see fuel cells used for commercial aviation would be to provide electrical power, replacing the jet fuel powered APU (auxiliary power unit), but the jet engines themselves will still use liquid jet fuel. There is even the possibility of "hybrid jet engines" with the compressor stage electrically powered via fuel cells, but still using jet fuel for most of the thrust. Of course, there is a distinct possibility that those future aviation fuel cells will run on a liquid fuel far easier to handle and store than H2.
        • 5 Years Ago

        I never said we are running out of oil...but it's extremely unwise to continue to use it.
        • 5 Years Ago
        Since we've already veered off-topic, I'll point out that fuel cells are being used in experimental aircraft. I think ChrisM vastly overestimates the storage requirements of H2.




        Seriously though, biofuels are a much more likely scenario to fuel future jet transport. HFC powered aircraft will likely be a very small niche within the very small enthusiast-experimental aircraft sector.
        • 5 Years Ago
        Noz, it is mis-direction because it was irrelevant to the subject under discussion, but since you insisted in bringing it up, I replied. I've never proposed powering commercial jets with batteries, that is your strawman obsession, not mine.

        I noticed that your only answer to the fact that H2 fuel is too bulky to power commercial jets is to just hand-wave it away with vague talk of "hydrogen storage research". Cryogenically cooled liquid H2 would require a giant thermos bottle as big as the fuselage of the average jet. A compressed H2 tank would be even bigger. Using a H2 absorbing material might reduce the pressure and volume somewhat, but would add considerable weight, making it too heavy. Chemical storage would add both weight and cost - unless some way was found to make cheap hydrocarbon fuels from it, and existing liquid biofuels would be better suited.

        Sorry, but no amount of research can change the basic fundamental physical nature of H2 gas. You of all people should understand that.
        • 5 Years Ago
        It does take energy to make hydrogen, just like it does for electricity and other fuels. The real question though is whether it's worth it. To make a family-sized car that has a long range and can fuel quickly for long trips, you need hydrogen (with batteries to capture energy from braking and slowing down). They work best together.

        True, batteries may be good for some smaller cars not designed to go long distances. Adding hydrogen though affords more flexibility to design a wider variety of vehicles. Plus, if you were to put enough batteries on a vehicle to go 200, 300 or more miles, the extra weight that you'd be carrying with all those batteries actually reduces their efficiency significantly (and takes up 2x more space).
        • 5 Years Ago
        Large transport and aircraft will continue to run on oil . . . we are not running out of oil, it is just going to get much more expensive.
      • 5 Years Ago
      "shockingly low"
      • 5 Years Ago
      Oooh, adding 5 more H2FCVs, that will bring the grand total up to about 330! Meanwhile, Tesla Motors has already delivered about 1,200 EVs and will be mass producing the Model S EV. Almost every automaker will have one or more EV or PHEV model on the market years before that 2015 date, so H2FCVs could well be crowded out of the market before they arrive.
      • 5 Years Ago
      Prepare for Hydrogen from that guy (Glenn Belcoe?) spam in 3 . . 2. . . 1 . .

      Seriously Toyota, just stop. Hydrogen cannot be produced efficiently in the long term, there is no distribution infrastructure, the fuel cells are too expensive, it is difficult to store hydrogen, etc.
        • 5 Years Ago
        Augustus, we really can store electrical energy, in those wonderous newfangled devices called "batteries". Even better, for storing electricity, batteries are 3x more efficient than the combination of electrolysis, compression for storage, and fuel cell. Why waste so much electrical energy when we don't have to?

        Using batteries instead of H2 to store wind derived electricity would mean a lot more electricity available for other uses, like displacing fossil fuel use.
        • 5 Years Ago
        "Seriously Toyota, just stop."

        Har har har.

        Here's an idea: use wind power to create hydrogen whenever there is inadequate demand from the rest of the grid. Store the hydrogen (you can't really do that with electricity).
        • 5 Years Ago
        Ah, yes. There's that famous "Can Do!" attitude that gets things done...

      • 5 Years Ago
      Purdue Prof. Jerry Woodall has already solved the problem of
      producing H2 more cheaply than is currently being done. The infrastructure
      would also be less expensive because H2 could be produced in dispersed
      locales with his method. He proposes using H2 in EREVs like the Chevy
      Volt. The H2 would be the feedstock for the genset. As you may have seen,
      cost of fuels cells has come way down recently (Bloom Box episode).
      Jerry Woodall's cheaper method of splitting H2 from water:
      I like the Germans' approach too, of not putting all eggs in one basket.
      This is just FYI
        • 5 Years Ago
        It's called "facing reality", letstakawalk.

        Try it sometime.
        • 5 Years Ago
        What Prof. Woodall has discovered is a way to get a big fat research grant for his University by using the magic buzzword "Hydrogen". Interesting discovery, but it isn't a practical way to make H2 to fuel vehicles.

        Woodall had proposed using his process to provide H2 to fuel an IC engine, but to get a 350 mile range would take several hundred kilograms of aluminum alloy costing about $550 dollars, plus several hundred kilograms of water.

        Using a H2 fuel cell made it twice as efficient and reduced the amount of aluminum, though the cost per refill is still exhorbitant and the overall efficiency is still very low, and the weight of aluminum and water is still excessively high.

        Ironically, where this wonder alloy might find success is in an Aluminum/Air fuel cell, bypassing the energy wasting H2 production stage and producing electricity directly. Efficiency would be far higher, the amount of aluminum fuel reduced, no heavy water tank required, and the Al/Air fuel cell itself would probably be quite a bit less expensive.
        • 5 Years Ago
        Chris M is almost beyond hope in his disdain for anything H2 related. Wait for his published critique in a peer-reviewed journal.

        Oh. Wait.

      • 5 Years Ago
      "The future of transport lies in the electrification of the propulsion systems. No single technology will be enough to solve this challenge on its own. Therefore, we are pursuing a non-technology-specific approach with our programmes and are promoting both battery and hydrogen and fuel cell technology."

      What a rational way to approach the issue. Kudos to those who are working to bring clean hydrogen FCVs into the market. They won't appeal to everyone (obviously), but they do reduce emissions, and will help decrease our dependency on fossil fuels.
        • 5 Years Ago
        Two YEARS ago we had the technology to make hydrogen for the equivalent for $3-6/gal. of gasoline equivalent. That includes wind, biomass, gasified coal and natural gas. http://www.h2andyou.org/facts.asp

        We have the technology, it's a matter of scaling it up.

        Same for infrastructure. In 2008 in the US, we produced 20 BILLION kilograms of hydrogen. There are production sites near almost every major U.S. city. There are over 1,200 miles of hydrogen pipelines.

        We have the technology to make and deliver hydrogen. We just need to scale it up on the consumer level at fueling stations from the 69 currently operational today. The cost per vehicle is actually about the same as for battery vehicles (unless you're ok waiting 8 hours to charge in which case, it's slightly less. And most car buyers aren't that patient.). We need to scale up both. There's lots of action for batteries. It's only smart for our future to make sure there's also solid action for hydrogen technologies.
        • 5 Years Ago
        "Renewable" "Green" hydrogen is only a smokescreen to get us locked into big oils dirty hydrogen supply chain.

        You cant produce hydrogen from renewable sources at a reasonable price.
        • 5 Years Ago
        Innovation and advancements are apparently not in the vocabulary of most people here.

        Rather pathetic short-sighted mindsets here.
        • 5 Years Ago
        You wont decrease our dependency on fossil fuels by creating hydrogen from fossil fuels.
        Making hydrogen from renewable sources is expensive, and an inefficient waste of clean energy.
        • 5 Years Ago
        Thanks Letstakeawalk for making sure accurate information is in front of everyone who didn't read the release. If some Americans continue to hate ONE OF the best technologies we know of to reduce emissions and oil consumption from transportation, I can assure you that other nations and regions will pick up where the U.S. has dropped off and we the U.S. will lose its competitive advantage. Keeping the progress going is affordable and doable, but only if we stay committed and don't put all of our eggs in one technology basket. Cheers to Toyota for their unwavering commitment and balanced approach.
        • 5 Years Ago
        There is no such a thing as "clean hydrogen" More LIES from letstakeawalk.
        • 5 Years Ago
        "The integration of renewable energy plays a major role in this. The declared objective of the Clean Energy Partnership is to increase the proportion of hydrogen produced using renewable energy to 50%."

        Read the article guys. Fossil fuels aren't the only source of hydrogen.

        ...and now back to your daily 5-minute hate.
      • 5 Years Ago
      Methanol-oxygen fuel cells have long term potential.

      Hydrogen fuel cells are a notorious boondoggle.

        • 5 Years Ago
        What? Noz, are you now opposed to fuel cells? Or is your opposition only to fuel cells running on "other" fuels?

        Right now, fuel cells are too expensive to be economically competitive, but as Noz keeps insisting, research is ongoing to reduce the costs. But developments to reduce the cost of H2 fuel cells will likely be applicable to other types of fuel cells as well, so by the time H2 fuel cells get inexpensive enough to be affordable to the average driver, then methanol fuel cells will also be affordable! Of course, methanol fuel will be less expensive than H2 fuel (unless a heavy tax is applied to methanol and a subsidy applied to H2), and of course methanol storage tanks will be a fraction of the cost of any H2 storage tanks, and will yield considerably greater driving range to those Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicles. .
        • 5 Years Ago
        More nonsense from Carney....
        • 5 Years Ago
        Noz, H2 fuel cells were fabulously expensive due to the platinum used. They were not being used commercially on any great scale precisely because they were too expensive. Now there has been considerable research to reduce platinum requirements and reduce costs, and they have succeeded in reducing the cost of a 100 Kw H2 fuel cell from $2 million down to a half million dollars. There are even claims that, if mass produced, the cost would be "reasonable", but the problem is that they can't reduce the price without mass production and they can't start mass production without a mass market, and it's still too expensive for the mass market.

        Granted, maybe some research breakthroughs could bring the price down low enough for ordinary consumers, even without "mass production", but as I've pointed out (and Noz apparently wants to ignore) any such breakthrough would probably apply to fuel cells running on other fuels, such as the methanol fuel cells that Carney mentions. Since methanol fuel is less expensive and much easier to store than H2, it would quickly crowd the "H2 only" version out of the market.
        • 5 Years Ago

        Yes...right now fuels are too expensive. But that's also because people like you are always resisting expansion of such technologies.

        What do you think the price of fuel cells would be if they were commercially used on a scale that batteries and IC engines are used?

        People whine about no infrastructure...well...no sh%t there's no infrastructure when no one invests in it and builds it.

        As we are seeing, even for EVs, billions are going to have to be spent to make EV's feasible and commercially viable. The simple pipe dream EV advocates are hollering about constantly is complete BS.
        • 5 Years Ago
        let's put it this way, what's the cheapest a hydrogen fuel call car has been sold for at a profit?
        less than a million dollars? humm?
        not that argument by authority has any real merit but you ignorant hydrogen proponents don't respond well to reason either so I'll use it, there is good reason that nobel prize winner and secretary of energy Steven Chu told hydrogen to go fuck itself and put all the money on battery electrics. sure hydrogen was given a token amount later to silence all the evil republicans but the fact remains.

        hydrogen fuel cells have been primarily promoted by big oil because they knew it would never fly. convenient for them.

        but I can believe that a liquid fuel cell has a future for cars. because that gets around the nasty compression problem with hydrogen which I believe to be the one killer problem with hydrogen. a liquid fuel cell would be a cool backup generator for EVs. even if also only about 30% effectively efficient like hydrogen fuel cells.

        but thinking about this gave me an idea where hydrogen actually could be used. perhaps with great success. and something people haven't been talking about much yet. I've been wondering about how to store excess renewable electricity from windmills and solar etc for a country to get completely off fossil fuels. not just cars but power plants too and 'feed stock' for the chemical industry such as plastics. and it's possible to make methanol from air and water with electricity (for real) which you can then burn in coal power plants when there is little wind or sun. but it struck me that for power plants hydrogen might work because it doesn't need to be as compressed. you could have huge tanks on the ground near the power station. even produce the gas on site from water and excess power on the grid.
        in Denmark we already have days with excess power they have to pay to get rid off. should be possible to implement such a system right away.
        • 5 Years Ago
        "...and something people haven't been talking about much yet. I've been wondering about how to store excess renewable electricity from windmills and solar etc for a country to get completely off fossil fuels."

        This is one of the most rational things I've ever read in your writings.

        People are talking about it, and it is a major benefit of fuel cells.

        "Load-levelling and peak-shaving" is what it is called, and hydrogen is one way to do it.


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