• Jan 29th 2010 at 1:59PM
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Volvo 2.0-liter GTDi engine – Click above for high-res image gallery

Direct injection and turbocharging go together like peanut butter and jelly. Abbot and Costello. Brett Favre and protracted retirement negotiations. And it's easy to understand why. Few of us seem willing to give up performance in the name of fuel efficiency and the combined efforts of these two technologies squeeze both extra ponies and extra mileage out of a small-bore powerplant.

Volvo's first Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDi) engine will displace 2.0 liters and will offer up 203 horsepower and 221 pound-feet of torque at just 1,750 RPM (plus an overboost function unleashing another 15 lb-ft for short bursts). Volvo will first use the new mill in its European S80 sedan, to be followed closely by the V70 and XC60 models.

The new GTDi engine also features variable valve timing on both camshafts, further improving efficiency, and it will be offered with either Volvo's dual-clutch fully automatic six-speed Powershift transmission or a six-speed manual gearbox. We fully expect Volvo to eventually offer this new powerplant in the United States as a replacement for its aging 2.5-liter inline-five. Click past the break for the official press release.

[Source: Volvo]
Show full PR text
Volvo launches an energy-efficient 2-litre GTDi engine with unique turbo system

Volvo Car Corporation is introducing an all-new four-cylinder 2-litre GTDi (Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection) engine in the Volvo S80, V70 and XC60, offering great performance and efficiency all in one.
New Volvo-developed turbocharging technology, direct injection and twin variable camshafts give a unique combination of low fuel consumption, low emissions and high performance across a wide rev range - all in a particularly compact format.

The new petrol engine, the 2.0 GTDi, produces no less than 203 hp despite its compact size and cylinder capacity. It pumps out 300 Nm of torque already from 1750 rpm thus securing a refined driving experience.
"We've succeeded in making a four-cylinder engine that is as powerful as a 2.5-litre five-cylinder unit, and it's also much more energy-efficient. This is a very welcome both for those customers who want high performance as well as supreme driveability and for the environment that benefits from the improved fuel efficiency. One of the most important reasons behind the results is our new, patented turbo system that has been tailor-made for smaller energy-efficient engines," says Magnus Jonsson, head of Product Development at Volvo Cars.

Less is more - Meet the next generation turbo technology
The turbocharger system has been developed in cooperation between Volvo Cars, Borg-Warner Turbo System and steel component manufacturer Benteler Automotive. The turbocharger (K03) is the market's smallest in relation to the engine's maximum output. The turbo not only gives excellent performance properties, it also improves exhaust aftertreatment by enabling quick heating of the catalyst.

The turbine housing is integrated into the manifold, an efficient solution with which Volvo already had previous good experience. The difference is that the new manifold and turbine housing are made of sheet steel instead of a casting. The sheet is lighter and more compact and, above all, this system generates less heat owing to its extra insulating layer. This allows high gas flow temperature and thus more efficient combustion.

A manifold made of sheet steel is admittedly nothing new but so far it has only been used in combination with cast turbine housing. The new, fully integrated turbo package made entirely of sheet steel is a world innovation and has been patented by Volvo.

This innovative technology has made it possible to shape the exhaust ducts optimally to allow an optimal gas flow and generate the maximum pulse effect for the highest possible turbine efficiency. The pulse dynamics can thus be utilised to the limits in order to generate a high power output level across a wider range of engine revs. This translates into close to immediate response and good acceleration at both low and high speeds.
"High performance is important to many customers. However, being an innovative and highly efficient powertrain, there is also a significant gain in both fuel consumption and emissions with this technology" says Magnus Jonsson. "A Volvo S80 with this engine and automatic transmission consumes just 8.3 litres of fuel per 100 kilometres."

Efficient direct injection starts the turbo quickly

The new engine features direct injection. The injectors have seven holes for precisely controlled injection into each cylinder. The injectors are side-mounted.
Direct injection gives a high fill rate in the combustion chamber, efficient combustion and low emissions. Thanks to this high fill rate, the turbo also starts spinning earlier, delivering alert response from low revs. This in turn results in swift acceleration and good driveability even from low speeds.
Direct injection also contributes to quick and stable combustion at high loads, and thus smooth engine operation even when the accelerator is floored.
The injection system is supplied by Bosch.

Twin VVT (Variable Valve Timing)
Volvo's new GTDi engine utilises variable timing for both camshafts. Both the inlet and the exhaust valves' opening times can be varied to optimise the overlap and ensure the correct fill rate in the combustion chamber irrespective of engine revs. This gives the combustion process maximum efficiency throughout the rev range and helps generate rapid acceleration at all speeds.

Both VVTs are of the conventional vane-type. The rotation of the inner and outer rotor is regulated by hydraulic pressure from the engine oil. By opening and closing the oil control valves, the oil pressure and flow through the VVTs are changed until the desired angular deviation between the inner and outer rotor is achieved. The oil control valves are controlled by software in the Engine Management System using feedback from the cam position sensors.

"By combining direct injection and VVT with our new patented turbo system, we can offer an engine with low fuel consumption and low emissions, without having to compromise on performance or driving properties," says Magnus Jonsson. "We have created an engine that is as efficient in the city as it is on the highway. And since the design is based on an already-existing engine concept, we can offer more car buyers a highly fuel-efficient alternative at a reasonable price."

In combination with Powershift or manual gearbox
The engine will be offered in combination with Volvo's automatic six-speed Powershift transmission or a six-speed manual gearbox.

This new six-speed double-clutch automatic transmission combines the efficiency and driving dynamics of a manual transmission with the ease of a quality automatic transmission. The clutch activations are co-ordinated so that no torque interruption occurs during gear changing. This provides both the ease and permanent motion of a conventional automatic transmission and the performance of a manual transmission.

A key global powertrain for Volvo
Volvo's new 2.0 GTDi engine is being initially launched on markets that offer tax incentives for engines below two litres in displacement: South-East Asia, the Netherlands, China and Japan.

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    • 1 Second Ago
      • 5 Years Ago
      OOoh... a blown 2.0T that makes less power than most, or the same that others have made for years. Awesome. Color me even more impressed than the standard 5 speed slushbox their saddling their convertible with. yawn. Welcome to four years ago Volvo.
        • 5 Years Ago
        peak power is not everything

        the real story here is the all sheetmetal exhaust manifold and turbo housing, volvo (and now geely) own the patent on that tech. i would love to see the trick manufacturing process that makes that possible

        it is one very small very responsive very hi tech turbo
      • 5 Years Ago
      What? this technology goes to China?
      WTF. Ford is a ****head.
      • 5 Years Ago
      This engine, being turbocharged AND direct injected, doesn't make a whole lot of power or torque for its size. Volvo engines, while smooth, are usually behind in terms of performance.
      • 5 Years Ago
      considering the current S80 FWD 3.2 V6 gets 21 mpg (combined) this is going to be a HUGE step forward.
      • 5 Years Ago
      I first I thought this was a new diesel engine, talk about a let down.
      • 5 Years Ago
      spam much?
      • 5 Years Ago
      An overboost function for an extra 15 lb-ft? Lol...what's the point?
      • 5 Years Ago
      Just in time for the chinese!
        • 5 Years Ago
        Fantastic yuan per liter ratio!
      • 5 Years Ago
      I'm a little confused why they spent all their development money on 5 cylinder engines. Those things have horrible vibration/noise characteristics. Dual variable valve timing would have given a large 4 cylinder the same amount of power.

      The upside of this motor is that it has a lot of torque down-low. It's sort of the BMW approach; lots of low end torque low, but not at the expense of horsepower.

      It's not meant to be a competitor to the GTI or EVO or WRX; it's meant to be a high tech, small displacement turbo engine with good driving characteristics and great MPG.

      Too bad they are 4 years late in bringing this to the table.
      Coupled with reliability that would make a VW look like a Honda, even this won't save them.
        • 5 Years Ago
        Yup. The old three-digit-named Volvos had the number of cylinders right in the name (with a couple exceptions). For example, the station wagon version of the 850 was technically the 855, and the 854 was the sedan.

        8 = series name
        5 = cylinders
        5 = doors

        So 740 had 4 cylinders, 960 had six, etc.

        The most notable exceptions to this rule were a couple years of 260 and all 760 Turbos. Until that the early 90s, Volvo only made a 2L straight-4 (known as the Volvo "redblock"), and used V6s from a (not great) partnership with Renault and Peugeot. The V6s were generally pretty bad, in terms of power, gas mileage, and reliability.

        The engineers started developing the current engine family (known as the Volvo "Modular Engine") in the late-80s to bring all engines in-house. The first engine used off this line was a longitudinally-mounted straight-6, used in latter-day 960s/S90/V90.

        The Modular Engine was simultaneously being tested on the 850, which was a testbed for three simultaneous shifts in Volvo's methodology.

        1) Transverse mounting, for safety and space reasons.
        2) FWD or AWD
        3) Engine flexibility - all the engines would be based on the same technology, but Volvo could adapt it down to 4 cylinders or up to 6 cylinders.

        The decision was made to build a 5-cylinder engine because, if they were able to solve vibration issues of transverse-mounting AND 5-cylinder engines at the same time, they would have an engine platform adaptable to 4- and 6-cylinder variants.

        So, since 1991, this engine family has been used, and since 1993, this engine family has been in ALL Volvos.
        • 5 Years Ago
        Uh, this engine has dual variable valve timing and is a 4-cylinder.
        • 5 Years Ago
        maybe i wasn't clear; i was talking crap about the 5 cylinder engines these motors are replacing.
        • 5 Years Ago
        Vijay, insightful. I had no idea that I5's were in oldschool Volvos.
        The only 5 cylinder engine i have experience with is VW's 2.5 and i know it has bad vibrations at higher RPMs.

        I suppose Volvo was using some sort of genius balance-shaft setup to counteract the problem.. but you know, they weren't getting amazing fuel economy out of those motors so it's weird to stick with them so long.

        Seems silly that you wouldn't go with a 4 or 6. 4's are more balanced, i6's are pefectly balanced, and v6's have great balance as well.

      • 5 Years Ago
      Too bad the 2011 Hyundai Sonata will employ a 270 hp Direct Injected 2.0 turbo I4.
      • 5 Years Ago
      Here is a great site for those of us who are lazy or mathmatically
      challenged, Chilipepper. http://www.convert-me.com/en/
      The answer is 28.34 MPG, straight conversion. I can see why they didn't headline with this dismal performance.
        • 5 Years Ago
        I guess I'm just impatient. If VW can produce little turbo diesels with more than adequate power that get mileage in the 40s, (some owners clain high 40s) we should have the option of hybrid turbo-diesels that get mileage in the 60+MPG range. I think we will have them within the next 24 months. I am not impressed with 28 MPG. Naturally asperated Buicks get that. I expect more from Volvo. I think they will have to do better to stay in the race (and it is a race).
        • 5 Years Ago
        I don't see what all the MPG complaints are about.

        The 2009 Volvo S80 FWD 3.2L is rated at 20mpg by EPA.

        The 2009 BMW 528i 3.0L is rated at 20mpg by EPA.

        If this engine/trans combo will allow the S80 to get 28mpg with similar power, I think that's a pretty good improvement, and it will be one of the best in the segment.
      • 5 Years Ago
      I am assuming this engine will have vastly better fuel economy than the outgoing 2.5L 5 cylinder. The press release says, "A Volvo S80 with this engine and automatic transmission consumes just 8.3 litres of fuel per 100 kilometres."

      Anybody have the EPA equivalent?
        • 5 Years Ago
        About 33mpg. This shows how far behind Volvo is to the rest of the auto world. It is also telling that Ford is not sharing the Ecoboost engine, unless it is the 2.0L that Ford developed and Volvo is the first to get it?
        • 5 Years Ago

        8.3 litres of fuel per 100 kilometres = 28ish mpg.

        • 5 Years Ago
        J.Crew, remember that the S80 is Volvo's largest car. 33mpg would not be bad. Also, this could indeed become Ford's EcoBoost. After all, the Powershift transmission they referred to here is also shared with Ford.
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